The Three Major Components of a Computer System
A computer functions on three major system components:
Hardware and software exist together to make up the actual computer. The humanware component adds in the human factor in order to bring the whole computer into functional and productive existence.
Each of these components is necessary in order to enable meaningful productivity. If installed separately, each may be useful to an extent but incapable of achieving complete computing potential. Hardware and software need the human factor in order to make input and connectivity possible.
1. Computer Hardware
These are computer system components that can be touched by the human hand. Examples include:
- Display monitor.
- Memory modules.
- Disk drive.
These parts are housed within the laptop or desktop system unit housing. For the desktop, however, the keyboard and mouse are attached externally.
The most important piece of hardware is the microprocessor chip. It is commonly known as the central processing unit (CPU).
New and slim laptop computers merge the traditional CPU and the graphics processing chip (GPU) into what is called accelerated processing unit (APU). These chips are usually attached to the motherboard in this slim laptops.
The CPU and APU are responsible for all arithmetic and graphics manipulation.
A component just as important is the disk drive. This is where computer data is stored. It is classified as secondary memory.
There are two popular types of disk drives to choose from.
Hard disk: This drive is mechanical by design and stores data on magnetic and metallic platters. Its data is read magnetically by read/write heads which make it reliant on an uninterrupted supply of power. A sudden power outage can lead to data loss or drive failure. It must be used properly for the sake of data integrity and long lifespan.
Solid state disk: This new type of disk drive stores data on flash memory chips and is less prone to erratic behavior. It is faster and reliable even in the event of sudden power outages.
Another vital part within a system is the motherboard. It provides communication and direct connectivity to devices throughout the computer.
Connectivity to a motherboard can be internal or external.
Internal devices that connect to the motherboard include:
- Microprocessor (CPU).
- Disk drive.
- Random access memory (memory modules).
- Power supply unit (PSU).
External peripherals that connect to the motherboard include:
Which one of the following is your preferred personal computer setup?
2. Computer Software
The software component refers to the instructions, programs, data, and protocols which run on top of hardware. It is also retained temporarily and persistently in primary and secondary hardware media. The random access memory chip is an example of primary hardware while the hard disk drive is an example of secondary hardware.
Software can be divided into system, application, malicious and programming categories.
The system manages other software and devices inside the computer. The foremost example of system software is the operating system (OS).
In a typical setup, the operating system is like the motherboard for software. It is the first thing that is installed, followed by applications and other software. Three popular operating systems for traditional computers include Windows, Mac OS X, and Linux.
Popular mobile operating systems include Android OS, iPhone OS, Windows Phone OS, and Firefox OS.
What computer platform do you find easy to use?
What operating system platform would you prefer to use MOST in future?
This is designed for end users to perform a specialized assignment in order to output useful information.
An example would be a word processing application used to compose letters or brochures, such as Microsoft Word.
Other popular examples include Adobe Photoshop, Corel Draw, and AutoCAD.
A collection of application software is bundled in a package that is commonly known as a software suite. A typical suite includes software for word processing, presentation, graphic design, and spreadsheet.
Examples include Microsoft Office, OpenOffice, and iWork.
Software is written in computer languages such as Visual Basic, C, and Java.
Malware, is short for malicious software, which is a generic term that refers to exploitative code designed by criminals and black hat hackers to maim normal operations of a computer. Malware attack will result in data loss and hacker access to private information.
Affected computers can also be converted into zombies and used in a bigger mission of criminal activities like launching denial of service attack and spreading spam.
Malware scripts are delivered to the computer as viruses, trojans, rootkits, keyloggers, worms, or through email and websites as adware, spyware, ransomware and scareware.
These are tools used by developers to create all kinds of software like Windows OS and Word processing. Also called languages, they are used to write source codes, debug errors, maintain and create new software for computers and write malicious scripts like viruses and trojans.
The humanware component refers to the person that uses the computer. More specifically, it is about the individual that makes hardware and software components productive.
Typically, a great deal of testing is done on software packages and hardware parts to ensure they enhance the end-user experience to aid in creating documents, musical and video recordings, and all forms of raw and finished data.
The Analogy of Components of a Computer
In a nutshell, a working computer system can be compared to a functioning kitchen.
- Food and cooking utensils are hardware.
- The recipe is software.
- The chef is humanware.
Even after purchasing the freshest ingredients and the finest pots and pans, there will not be a good meal without a chef. He/she will make good use of listed recipes to make good of the ingredients and utensils.
Both hardware and software are complemented by the works of a human to produce a fully functional computer system.
This article is accurate and true to the best of the author’s knowledge. Content is for informational or entertainment purposes only and does not substitute for personal counsel or professional advice in business, financial, legal, or technical matters.
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© 2012 Alfred Amuno