Operators in Python

Updated on May 20, 2019
Sam Shepards profile image

I'm a software developer with a great interest in data analysis and statistics.

Python supports the following types of operators:

  • Arithmetic operators
  • Comparison operators
  • Assignment operators
  • Logical operators
  • Bitwise operators
  • Membership operators
  • Identity operators

Let us learn about each of these operators in detail.

Arithmetic Operators in Python

Almost all operators which are supported in languages like C/C++ or Java are supported in Python. The operators +, -, / , * and % represent addition, subtraction, division, multiplication and modulus respectively. In addition to these, ** performs exponential calculation and // performs floor division. For the sake of the article’s brevity, we will focus more on operators unique to Python.

# following code demonstrates use of exponential operator.
x = 10
y = 3
print(x, " ** ", y, "=", x**y)  # output: 10  **  3 = 1000

The following code demonstrates the use of floor operation. In floor division, if the numerator is a positive number, the result is rounded towards zero. If the numerator is negative, the result is rounded away from zero.

# floor division with positive numerator
a = 10
b = 5.2
print(a,"/", b, "=", a/b) # output: 10 / 5.2 = 1.923076923076923
print(a,"//", b, "=", a//b) # output: 10 // 5.2 = 1.0
# floor division with negative numerator
a = -10
b = 5.2
print(a,"/", b, "=", a/b) # output: -10 / 5.2 = -1.923076923076923
print(a,"//", b, "=", a//b) # output: -10 // 5.2 = -2.0

Python Comparison Operators

Almost all comparison operators supported by languages like C/C++ or Java are supported by Python. The operators ==, !=. >,<, >= and <= denote equal to, not equal to, greater than, less than, greater than or equal to, and less than or equal to respectively.

Assignment Operators in Python

Equals symbol (=) is used by Python to assign a value on the right-hand side of expression to the variable on the left-hand side. Like other languages like C++ and Java, Python supports Operator-And operations where the result of the operation is assigned to the left.

# demonstration of assignment operators
c = 10
d = 20
print("original value of c", c) # output: original value of c 10
print("original value of d", d) # output: original value of d 20
c+= d
print("New value of c after performing c+=d ",c) # output: New value of c after performing c+=d  30
print("New value of c after performing c-=d", c) # output: New value of c after performing c-=d 10

Like += operation, all other arithmetic operators available in Python can be clubbed with equals symbol to formulate respective Operator-And operators.

Logical Operators

AND, OR and NOT are the three basic logical operators supported by Python.

# demonstration of logical operators
exp1 = True
exp2 = False
print("exp1 and exp2 = ", (exp1 and exp2)) # output: exp1 and exp2 =  False
print("exp1 or exp2 = ", (exp1 or exp2)) # output: exp1 or exp2 =  True
print(" Not(exp1) = ", not(exp1)) # output: Not(exp1) =  False

Bitwise Operators

Python supports AND(&), OR(|), XOR(^), One’s compliment or flipping of bits(~), left shift (<<) and right shift(>>) operators. There is a built-in function called bin() which gives the given integer in binary representation. To demonstrate the bitwise operations, we use this while printing the output in the sample code:

a = 54            # 54 = 0011 0110
b = 8            # 8 = 0000 1000
print ('a=',a,':',bin(a),'b=',b,':',bin(b))
c = 0
c = a & b;        # 0011 0110 AND 0000 1000 = 0000 0000 = 0
print ("result of AND is ", c,':',bin(c))
c = a | b;        # 0011 0110 OR 0000 1000 = 0011 1110 = 62 
print ("result of OR is ", c,':',bin(c))
c = a ^ b;        # 0011 0110 XOR 0000 1000 = 0011 1110 = 62
print ("result of EXOR is ", c,':',bin(c))
c = ~a;           # -55 = 1100 1001
print ("result of COMPLEMENT is ", c,':',bin(c))
c = a << 2;       # 216 = 1101 1000
print ("result of LEFT SHIFT is ", c,':',bin(c))
c = a >> 2;       # 13 = 0000 1101
print ("result of RIGHT SHIFT is ", c,':',bin(c))

Output of the above code will be:

a= 54 : 0b110110 b= 8 : 0b1000
result of AND is 0 : 0b0
result of OR is 62 : 0b111110
result of EXOR is 62 : 0b111110
result of COMPLEMENT is -55 : -0b110111
result of LEFT SHIFT is 216 : 0b11011000
result of RIGHT SHIFT is 13 : 0b1101

Membership Operators

In and not in are the two membership operators. These are used to find out if a given value on LHS is present in the construct of RHS.

firstTuple = ( 'Welcome', "To" , "List", 'Tutorial', 3.0  )
str1 = "Hello"
str2 = "Welcome"
if str1 in firstTuple:
    print(str1, " is present in firstTuple")
    print(str1, " is NOT present in firstTuple")
if str2 in firstTuple:
    print(str2, " is present in firstTuple")
    print(str2, " is NOT present in firstTuple")

Output for the above program will be:

Hello is NOT present in firstTuple
Welcome is present in firstTuple

Identity Operators

Is and is not are the identity operators in Python. These are used to verify if variables on LHS and RHS point to the same object in memory or not.

var1 = 2
var2 = var1
var3 = 9
if(var1 is var2):
    print("var1 and var2 have same location")
    print("var1 and var2 have different locations")
if(var3 is not var2):
    print("var3 and var2 have different locations")
    print("var3 and var2 have same location")

Output of the above program will be:

var1 and var2 have same location
var3 and var2 have different locations

© 2019 Sam Shepards


    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    No comments yet.


    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, turbofuture.com uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at: https://maven.io/company/pages/privacy

    Show Details
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the googleapis.com or gstatic.com domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)
    ClickscoThis is a data management platform studying reader behavior (Privacy Policy)