Simon has been involved in software development since the days of paper tape. He has developed niche software for information management.
Apple Macintoshes (or Macs) and PCs have been rivals for decades, with Macs being streets ahead in capability and market share at the start with their pioneering graphical user interface. However, over the decades, Microsoft’s Windows has gradually eroded that lead, and with PCs being so much cheaper than their Mac equivalents, the Mac laptop and desktop market share has steadily declined to about 20%, even though Apple continues to innovate in software and hardware with the App Store, iPhone and iPad.
While the Mac may have lost its original performance advantage over Windows, it retains a committed body of users, especially in the media area, and hardware holds its value far better. An 8-year old MacBook Pro laptop sells for more than a new Windows laptop of the same screen size with superior performance.
Developer of desktop applications rarely have to choose between Mac and Windows platforms but may have to become proficient in one platform after many years of working on the other.
Any desktop operating system has to support a means of developing software for its platform. The native Integrated Development Environment (IDE) products for this purpose for Mac and Windows are Xcode (VC) and Visual Studio (VS), respectively. Visual Studio is also available for recent operating system versions on Macs, but it relies on the Xcode Interface Builder. Both products have free or ‘community’ versions.
The paid version of Visual Studio has features useful for a large development team, such as access to a version-controlled repository. Both Visual Studio and Xcode are large, highly complex products, both supporting many types of applications and components in multiple languages. Visual Studio offers some multi-platform options, but only for applications without a graphical interface. Visual Studio add-ons such as ETO are available which provide some multi-platform interface facilities, but these are much less comprehensive than those available for Windows.
Xcode only creates applications for Apple hardware, which use a range of operating systems, all Unix-based. Applications written in Java can be run on any platform with a Java Virtual Machine, such as macOS, Windows or Linux. A review of cross-platform application tools can be found here.
In pursuit of improved performance, Apple is currently changing the Mac platform from using Intel x86 chips (as used in PCs) to using custom-designed ARM (Advanced RISC Machines) ones under the banner name of Apple Silicon. Although Macs do not have a great history of backwards compatibility, one report states that most applications built on Intel Macs should run on machines using Apple Silicon. The lack of backwards compatibility means that many media professionals run old versions of macOS as their software requires an expensive upgrade to run on later versions of macOS.
Analysis of 2100 visits to a commercial website for 5 months prior to May 2021 indicates that macOS users only account for 7.5% of visits. Of these 7.5%, 65% used macOS 10.15 or earlier rather than the latest version (11.x), which was used by only 15% of Mac users. By contrast, 93% of Windows users used the latest Windows 10 release.
Some of the differences in use of the latest OS between Mac and Windows may be because MacOS 11.0 was only released in November 2020, whereas Windows 10 has been available since 2015. 40% of Mac users used Google Chrome rather than the native Safari browser. 70% of Windows users preferred Google Chrome, with only 11% opting for the native Edge browser.
In the broadest of terms, the Mac development environment can generate sophisticated apps and requires little or no coding to deal with mundane but important attributes such as handling form resizing. However, it has a daunting learning curve and minimal documentation. The single-screen design requires constant juggling unless large or multiple screens are available.
Developers are steered toward App Store deployment. This has advantages, but the developer registration fee, loss of 30% of license fee income and application restrictions may be offputting. Independent deployment via .dmg files is possible but requires developer registration to avoid installation obstruction.
The development process is made more difficult by limited text search and editing facilities and the lack of utility of call stacks, which frequently do not indicate how to trap user interactions, as they do in Visual Studio. Extensive use is made of binding interface components, but the means of achieving this are not clear. Failures in binding operations can be very difficult to diagnose. The composite nature of interface components such as buttons and combo boxes may be confusing.
The Model-View-Controller design pattern underlying Xcode is elegant and theoretically attractive but can result in severe confusion after an interface is designed and the time comes to programmatically access controls or events. Outlets and/or actions have to be defined for each control and the means of doing this (ctrl-dragging onto an ‘Assistant Editor’) is anything but obvious. Like many things about the Mac, it’s easy – when you know how.
By contrast, accessing Visual Studio interface controls and events is amenable to discovery by experiment. If you ask for online help in forums such as Stack Overflow with any aspect of Mac development, be prepared for some irate responses. Mac gurus have little tolerance for questions whose answers they deem to be obvious, even if they are not so to a novice user.
Visual Studio labours under the requirement of maintaining 32-bit compatibility and occasionally refuses to display the design view of forms (in a WinForms app) unless a particular platform is chosen. For large, complex code assemblies, compile error detection may fail by indicating non-existent compile errors. Restarting Visual Studio usually fixes this.
Xcode’s most irritating bug is failure to display code in the Assistant Editor window. Display of this code and the facility to drag and drop onto it from the graphical interface is core to developing Xcode applications. Numerous workarounds are described on Stack Overflow to fix this problem but finding the one which works can be very time-consuming.
|Feature||Xcode (Mac)||Visual Studio (Windows)|
Complex, single screen with panes.
Complex, multiple screens.
nterface designer - general
Considerable learning curve
Many desirable features – eg resizing – built in. Model-View-Controller design requires different approach. Events difficult to detect.
Few built-in features, but Windows Forms events easy to detect
Objective C and Swift. Objective C is powerful but very verbose with a dated structure. Swift is more modern (released 2014) and more popular than Objective C since 2018.
C# and VB.Net. C# is Microsoft’s Java look-alike developed for .Net in 2000. VB.Net is close to earlier versions of Visual Basic and is easy to learn.
Text Editing Facilities
Some good features but generally cumbersome
Packaging for Deployment
Quite involved for independent distribution but all tools built in. App Developer registration required to avoid install warnings. Streamlined for App Store deployment.
Additional setup project required. Further processing with 3rd party tools required to create self-extracting executable. Option for Windows Apps deployment. Code signing certificate must be purchased to avoid Windows warning messages.
Difficult to create from scratch but Preview viewer for PDF provides indexed view.
Good free converter (NuHelp) available to allow authoring in Word and conversion to Compiled Help files
Sparse and unhelpful. Stack Overflow and Github most useful.
Reasonable. Example code frequently provided.
Apple Developer Forum may be helpful. Apple developers get a small quota of tech support queries.
Microsoft Community Q&A sometimes useful
Downloading Developed Apps
MIME type for .dmg file needs to be added for web server distribution.
Files with extensions .exe and .msi may be blocked as potentially malicious by web browsers.
Both Visual Studio and Xcode offer a large number of options for coding different types of objects for different platforms with different languages. Differences between the two are immediately apparent: cross-platform for Visual Studio includes Windows, all Apple operating systems, Linux, Android and Xbox, whereas multi-platform for Xcode means macOS and iOS (used for Mac and iPhones & iPad, respectively).
There is no support for non-Apple operating systems. However, Visual Studio’s capabilities for non-Windows platforms are limited to applications without a graphical interface. Various third-party add-ons are available to provide cross-platform graphical interfaces but facilities are generally limited. Visual Studio for Mac allows development in C# on a Mac, but interface design uses the Xcode Interface Builder.
Within Visual Studio developers for Windows have the choice of Windows Forms Applications (WinForms) or Windows Presentation Foundation interfaces. WinForms applications are simply a layer over standard Windows controls and have the distinctive Windows ‘grey box’ appearance. WPF applications are much more flexible in appearance.
Differences between the two are discussed in detail here. There is also a choice to be made about whether to use .Net Framework or .Net Core (Core is often omitted, as this is the new Microsoft standard). .Net Framework has been in use for many years, and a large number of components are available which make use of it. .Net Core is relatively new.
Software development involves a great deal of editing of text files containing source code. Both Visual Studio and Xcode store source code in a single text file for each higher level object (forms or modules in Visual Studio, classes in Xcode) with individual routines defined by a particular syntax within source code files.
Visual Studio allows selection of routines via a dropdown of alphabetically sorted routines and vertical scrolling of the display via a scrollbar. Xcode code display can only be scrolled using the up and down arrow keys – there is no up and down arrow for scrollbars. Xcode does support stepping up or down by a screen height (by holding the function key while clicking up or down arrow) The default ordering of routines in Xcode within classes reflects their ordering in the source code file, but markers can be placed which assist in grouping routines. Alphabetic ordering is possible (using command-click on the dropdown) but is not the default.
Xcode search presents its results in a separate pane to the source code as shown below, which is useful but does not offer the range of search scopes of Visual Studio (current block, current document, open documents, project and solution).
Although the differences between Xcode and Visual Studio text editing capabilities may appear minor, the intensity with which they are used makes the superior capabilities of Visual Studio attractive.
Xcode supports Objective C (the original Mac language) and Swift (a more modern replacement). The languages have the fundamental difference that the default for Objective C is to pass parameters to methods and functions by reference, whereas the Swift default is to pass them by value. The two languages are not interchangeable, as Swift contains features not found in Objective-C, whereas the two main languages supported by Visual Studio (C# and Visual Basic) are largely interchangeable, and online converters between them can be found.
A major deficit of the Apple development environment is the poor quality of help. The macOS and iOS operating systems contain some extremely powerful components, particularly for graphics operations, but implementing them is often a matter of trial and error and adaption from existing open-source code. Relevant open-source projects may be written in either Swift or Objective C and may need conversion before they can be utilised. Example projects may also be very old and contain obsolete features which may need replacing.
The software development process may include large amounts of time stepping through code one instruction at a time and examining the values of variables. Both Xcode and Visual Studio support this, but the panel displaying the values of current variables in Xcode only displays variable values within the routine as shown below.
Decoding may not be correct for complex objects or when using po (Print Out) in the debug window to view objects, (Boolean values appear as dates). The variables window does not always show attributes visible to the user, such as text values in NSTextFields. These must be shown by po commands in the debug window at the lldb prompt as shown below:
Both Xcode and Visual Studio support a try-catch-finally structure for run-time error handling but the Xcode exception object does not give the source code line being executed when the error occurred. Exception data tends to be cryptic on both platforms and is sometimes absent in Xcode.
Windows provides persistence of values between runs using the Windows Registry, with separate tables for global and user-specific values. This is a database, which can grow very large. Only a small number of data types are supported. macOS uses a per-user file structure, called a property list (or plist) which can support many different data types, but caches the stored values in memory, so parameters cannot be changed by editing plist values unless the cache is cleared with the command defaults delete <bundle identifier> entered at the Terminal.
Installation, Upgrades and Uninstallation
Visual Studio installer creation was originally a native capability but was later replaced by a cut-down commercial package (InstallAware LE), but the 2019 version returned to a native capability. However, it is complex to configure.
A Visual Studio install project creates an msi (Microsoft Silent Installer) package, which is a database containing all the required components. These can be deployed, but self-extracting executables have a number of advantages. Preparing these requires the use of 3rd-party components. Download of both .exe and .msi file types may be blocked by some browsers, as they may both contain malicious code.
Installation is straightforward in Windows if there has been no previous installation, but upgrading is more complex – objects required by the application are only replaced if their version number has changed, and this does not happen automatically. Failure to do this results in run-time errors. Uninstallation is complex - executable objects, library files and registry entries have to be removed, and if the original installer is not available the uninstallation cannot proceed from a script and has to be performed manually.
Universal Windows Programs (running only on Windows 10) have greatly simplified application management but at the cost of presenting applications in two different locations, so finding an application may not be straightforward.
Creating an installer for a macOS application is fairly simple, although non-intuitive in that it is performed using the Product→Archive menu options. The resulting files can then be processed with Disk Utility to create a dmg file, which can then be deployed. Notarisation is required to avoid obstruction during installation. A search to find instructions for this process is recommended as it is not intuitive.
macOS treats applications in the same way as files but what appears as an application icon is actually a disk image (with extension .dmg) containing all files required by the application, but not the persisted values. macOS displays these disk images in the same way as files. Double-clicking on a dmg runs the application, and dragging it to Applications folder makes it available in the same way as any application. Dragging the application to Trash uninstalls it.
When applications are downloaded from places other than the App Store, a dmg file is created in the Downloads folder. While the application can be run by double-clicking on the dmg file in situ, it will not appear in the Applications list unless the icon shown after double-clicking the dmg file is moved into the Applications folder. This can be done automatically using LetsMove CocoaPod.
If macOS applications are to be hosted on an independent website, a MIME type may need to be defined for .dmg files in the Web server software. Failure to do this may result in the file being inaccessible for download.
Upgrading is simply a matter of dragging the application icon into the Applications folder and replacing existing items. However, persisted values are not stored in the disk image and these remain on disc and in memory after uninstallation, so re-installation does not provide a complete refresh unless the disc file is removed and the cache cleared.
For many years Macs achieved ‘security through obscurity’, relying on the folklore “Macs don’t get malware’. However, this reputation arose largely from Mac’s small market share in recent years. As a result, Macs were not an attractive target for malware developers and they offered no screening for applications not installed from the App Store, such as is provided by Windows Defender.
However, since the release of macOS 10.15 (Catalina) in 2019, macOS included a GateKeeper component, which obstructs the installation of applications which have not been “notarised” in the same way that Windows 10 warns about installing unsigned applications. The notarising process uploads the application and checks that it does not contain malware. If this is the case, the application can be downloaded and installed without triggering GateKeeper.
Whether Apple notarisation is any more thorough and up to date at malware screening than other anti-malware products is not clear, as the majority of malware for desktops and laptops will target Windows. GateKeeper obstruction is much more substantial than that raised by Windows, which only requires clicking a button to install an unsigned application. Un-notarised applications can only be installed by accessing the macOS System Preferences.
This feature is consistent with Apple’s approach of making developers prefer to provide Mac software via the App Store rather than from other sources. (For iPhones and iPads the App Store is the only option.) The pros and cons of using the App Store have extensively discussed – search for “App Store Review” on your browser for latest article. Notarising requires an Apple Developer account which costs about US$100 per year.
Windows code-signing certificates are available from a number of cyber-security providers (such as Comodo) at varying prices, which are generally less than the cost of an Apple Developer subscription. However, the process of obtaining a certificate may be very slow and involve substantial enquiry to ascertain the bona-fides of the applicant, which are particularly onerous outside the United States.
External factors usually dominate the choice between Macs and PCs for development, rather than the merits of the development environment. For audio, photo or video editing, Macs are still commonly used – their generally superior performance compensates for the higher price tag.
To tap the massive iPhone/iPad and the smaller MacOS markets, development on a Mac is required. Microsoft is making strenuous attempts to move into mobile development as Android devices have become more popular, and attractive features of the Mac often find their way into Windows.
Mac developers are often extremely knowledgeable (at least the ones posting answers on Stack Overflow) but may have little patience for novices asking questions they deem to be obvious or inadequately described. The absence of any useful help from Apple makes use of forums essential for dealing with development problems.