Parts of a Motherboard and Their Function

Updated on April 26, 2019
Patkay profile image

Patrick, a computer technician, is a dedicated writer who wishes to make the world better by informing individuals who seek more knowledge.

The Parts of a Computer Motherboard

Some of the major components of a motherboard.
Some of the major components of a motherboard.

The Computer Mother Board Explained

The main printed circuit board in a computer is known as the motherboard. Other names for this central computer unit are system board, mainboard, or printed wired board (PWB). The motherboard is sometimes shortened to Mobo.

Numerous major components, crucial for the functioning of the computer, are attached to the motherboard. These include the processor, memory, and expansion slots. The motherboard connects directly or indirectly to every part of the PC.

The type of motherboard installed in a PC has a great effect on a computer's system speed and expansion capabilities.

Major Motherboard Components and Their Functions

A labeled ASRock K7VT4A Pro Mainboard.
A labeled ASRock K7VT4A Pro Mainboard. | Source

Central Processing Unit (CPU)

The Computer's Microprocessor

Also known as the microprocessor or the processor, the CPU is the computer's brain. It is responsible for fetching, decoding, and executing program instructions as well as performing mathematical and logical calculations.

The processor chip is identified by the processor type and the manufacturer. This information is usually inscribed on the chip itself. For example, Intel 386, Advanced Micro Devices (AMD) 386, Cyrix 486, Pentium MMX, Intel Core 2Duo, or iCore7.

If the processor chip is not on the motherboard, you can identify the processor socket as socket 1 to Socket 8, LGA 775 among others. This can help you identify the processor that fits in the socket. For example, a 486DX processor fits into Socket 3.

Random Access Memory (RAM)

The Computer Memory

Random Access Memory, or RAM, usually refers to computer chips that temporarily store dynamic data to enhance computer performance while you are working.

In other words, it is the working place of your computer, where active programs and data are loaded so that any time the processor requires them, it doesn't have to fetch them from the hard disk.

Random access memory is volatile, meaning it loses its contents once power is turned off. This is different from non-volatile memory, such as hard disks and flash memory, which do not require a power source to retain data.

When a computer shuts down properly, all data located in RAM is returned back to permanent storage on the hard drive or flash drive. At the next boot-up, RAM begins to fill with programs automatically loaded at startup, a process called booting. Later on, the user opens other files and programs that are still loaded in the memory.

Basic Input/Output System (BIOS)

The BIOS

BIOS stands for Basic Input/Output System. BIOS is a "read-only" memory, which consists of low-level software that controls the system hardware and acts as an interface between the operating system and the hardware. Most people know the term BIOS by another name—device drivers, or just drivers. BIOS is essentially the link between the computer hardware and software in a system.

All motherboards include a small block of Read Only Memory (ROM) which is separate from the main system memory used for loading and running software. On PCs, the BIOS contains all the code required to control the keyboard, display screen, disk drives, serial communications, and a number of miscellaneous functions.

The system BIOS is a ROM chip on the motherboard used during the startup routine (boot process) to check out the system and prepare to run the hardware. The BIOS is stored on a ROM chip because ROM retains information even when no power is being supplied to the computer.

Complimentary Metal Oxide Semiconductor Random Access Memory (CMOS RAM)

Photo Showing the CMOS Battery

A CMOS Battery.
A CMOS Battery. | Source

The CMOS Battery

Motherboards also include a small separate block of memory made from CMOS RAM chips which are kept alive by a battery (known as a CMOS battery) even when the PC’s power is off. This prevents reconfiguration when the PC is powered on.

CMOS devices require very little power to operate.

The CMOS RAM is used to store basic Information about the PC’s configuration for instance:-

  • Floppy disk and hard disk drive types
  • Information about CPU
  • RAM size
  • Date and time
  • Serial and parallel port information
  • Plug and Play information
  • Power Saving settings

Other Important data kept in CMOS memory is the time and date, which is updated by a Real Time Clock (RTC).

Cache Memory

The Level 2 Cache Memory on an Old Motherboard

L2 cache on an old motherboard.
L2 cache on an old motherboard.

The Computer Cache Memory

Cache memory is a small block of high-speed memory (RAM) that enhances PC performance by pre-loading information from the (relatively slow) main memory and passing it to the processor on demand.

Most CPUs have an internal cache memory (built into the processor) which is referred to as Level 1 or primary cache memory. This can be supplemented by external cache memory fitted on the motherboard. This is the Level 2 or secondary cache.

In modern computers, Levels 1 and 2 cache memory are built into the processor die. If a third cache is implemented outside the die, it is referred to as the Level 3 (L3) cache.

Expansion Bus

PCI slots.
PCI slots.

The Expansion Buses

An expansion bus is an input/output pathway from the CPU to peripheral devices and it is typically made up of a series of slots on the motherboard. Expansion boards (cards) plug into the bus. PCI is the most common expansion bus in a PC and other hardware platforms. Buses carry signals such as data, memory addresses, power, and control signals from component to component. Other types of buses include ISA and EISA.

Expansion buses enhance the PCs capabilities by allowing users to add missing features in their computers by slotting adapter cards into expansion slots.

Chipsets

The Computer Chip-sets

A chipset is a group of small circuits that coordinate the flow of data to and from a PC's key components. These key components include the CPU itself, the main memory, the secondary cache, and any devices situated on the buses. A chipset also controls data flow to and from hard disks and other devices connected to the IDE channels.

A computer has got two main chipsets:

  • The NorthBridge (also called the memory controller) is in charge of controlling transfers between the processor and the RAM, which is why it is located physically near the processor. It is sometimes called the GMCH, for Graphic and Memory Controller Hub.
  • The SouthBridge (also called the input/output controller or expansion controller) handles communications between slower peripheral devices. It is also called the ICH (I/O Controller Hub). The term "bridge" is generally used to designate a component which connects two buses.

Chipset manufacturers include SIS, VIA, ALI, and OPTI.

CPU Clock

The CPU Clock

The CPU clock synchronizes the operation of all parts of the PC and provides the basic timing signal for the CPU. Using a quartz crystal, the CPU clock breathes life into the microprocessor by feeding it a constant flow of pulses.

For example, a 200 MHz CPU receives 200 million pulses per second from the clock. A 2 GHz CPU gets two billion pulses per second. Similarly, in any communications device, a clock may be used to synchronize the data pulses between sender and receiver.

A "real-time clock," also called the "system clock," keeps track of the time of day and makes this data available to the software. A "time-sharing clock" interrupts the CPU at regular intervals and allows the operating system to divide its time between active users and/or applications.

Switches and Jumpers

The Switches and Jumpers

  • DIP (Dual In-line Package) switches are small electronic switches found on the circuit board that can be turned on or off just like a normal switch. They are very small and so are usually flipped with a pointed object, such as the tip of a screwdriver, a bent paper clip, or a pen top. Take care when cleaning near DIP switches, as some solvents may destroy them. Dip switches are obsolete and you will not find them in modern systems.
  • Jumper pins are small protruding pins on the motherboard. A jumper cap or bridge is used to connect or short a pair of jumper pins. When the bridge is connected to any two pins, via a shorting link, it completes the circuit and a certain configuration has been achieved.
  • Jumper caps are metal bridges that close an electrical circuit. Typically, a jumper consists of a plastic plug that fits over a pair of protruding pins. Jumpers are sometimes used to configure expansion boards. By placing a jumper plug over a different set of pins, you can change a board's parameters.

NOTE: You can check the jumper pins and jumper cap at the back of an IDE hard disk and a CD/DVD ROM/Writer.

More Resources

If you are on the lookout for more resources about computers, you can buy this book CompTIA A+ Certification All-in-One Exam Guide. This is a good book for those who want to know much more about computer hardware. I have used the book on numerous occasions and Mike Meyers never disappoints.

Parts of a Motherboard

Did you get what you were looking for in this hub?

See results

This article is accurate and true to the best of the author’s knowledge. Content is for informational or entertainment purposes only and does not substitute for personal counsel or professional advice in business, financial, legal, or technical matters.

Questions & Answers

  • What is the function of the PCI slot?

    PCI stands for Peripheral Component Interconnect. This is a computer slot that allows you to insert expansion cards into your computer. These can come in the form of sound cards, RAID cards, SSDs, graphics cards, Coprocessors, and several other functional computer parts. So it enables you to expand the capabilities of the PC by adding what you do not have.

  • How do I identify whether the RAM slots are DDR 1, DDR 2, DDR 3, or DDR 4?

    There are a number of ways you can use to determine the kind of RAM slot you have. To begin with, you can check the number of pins. DDR has 184 pins and DDR2 and 3 has 240 pins while DDR4 has 288 pins. The other method is to look at the key notch position. DDR notch is almost at the center but slightly to the right. DDR2 notch is almost at the center as compared to DDR3 which is slightly to the left. DDR4 has a notch slightly to the right but very close to the center of the RAM slot.

  • Why is thé network card not mentioned?

    If you look at the article closely, we are talking about various components found on the motherboard. When it comes to the network card, you will find that most modern computers support an internal network interface controller embedded in the motherboard directly rather than provided as an external component. So, in modern motherboards, you will not find a network card as a device on its own. It will be embedded in a chipset.

  • What is the function of IDE under system hardware?

    Integrated Drive Electronics (IDE) is a standard interface for connecting a motherboard to storage devices such as hard drives and CD-ROM/DVD drives. In most older motherboards, there used to be 2 IDE channels where drives were connected via a ribbon cable. Each cable carries 2 devices. There is an integrated disk drive controller on the motherboard for controlling the flow of informing from the drive to the motherboard and vice versa.

    Modern motherboards make use of SATA technology. A serial advanced technology attachment (serial ATA, SATA or S-ATA) is a computer bus interface used to connect host bus adapters (disk drive controllers) with mass storage devices like optical drives and hard drives.

  • Which is the most important component of a computer system?

    Technically speaking, I would say that each and every component is important. There are those who will be quick to reply that it is the processor. Yes, it is true the processor plays an important role in the computer. But what about the memory, can a computer operate without the memory? That is a big no. What about the power supply? Again can the computer operate without the power supply? That is not possible. So in simple words, all the components of a computer are very important as they are there are there for a reason.

© 2011 Patrick Kamau

Comments

    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment
    • Patkay profile imageAUTHOR

      Patrick Kamau 

      28 hours ago from Nairobi, Kenya

      Thanks Deputy. It is people like you who give us the morale to write now and then.

    • profile image

      Deputy 

      10 days ago

      Very commendable

    • profile image

      Yusuf azeez 

      13 days ago

      Useful indeed

    • profile image

      LEVIS OTI 

      2 weeks ago

      VERY USEFUL INDEED!!

    • profile image

      Ayeta 

      3 weeks ago

      Easy to understand

    • profile image

      Crissander 

      4 weeks ago

      I passed to my teacher because of that thank you so much

    • profile image

      Gata Abdull 

      4 weeks ago

      I am very appreciate that i get what i need, and is very intresting

    • profile image

      staya 

      5 weeks ago

      very using

    • profile image

      Nice 

      5 weeks ago

      Very interesting

    • profile image

      xavier 

      6 weeks ago

      awesome

    • profile image

      emma 

      6 weeks ago

      sweet

    • profile image

      siddu sake 

      2 months ago

      powerful

    • profile image

      ganesh 

      2 months ago

      nice

    • profile image

      guillermo 

      2 months ago

      great

    • profile image

      Nankunda Alex 

      2 months ago

      Thanx a lot author,am done with my coursework,God bless u

    • profile image

      duryodhan rathod 

      2 months ago

      useful

    • profile image

      jo 

      3 months ago

      yeahh thats great i learn more something

    • profile image

      j-c-a 

      3 months ago

      i'm so thankful

    • profile image

      ivan 

      3 months ago

      thank you so much

    • profile image

      mingizem 

      4 months ago

      Wow

    • profile image

      umar 

      4 months ago

      helpful

    • profile image

      davy ARRIF 

      4 months ago

      useful indeed

    • profile image

      Almas Parvin Mujafar Ali 

      4 months ago

      Thank you so much Patrick for sharing the knowledge..

      I found it interesting.

    • profile image

      shazx 

      4 months ago

      kinda helpful for my assignment

    • profile image

      pradeep 

      4 months ago

      i like

    • profile image

      Balakumaran U S 

      4 months ago

      What happens the computer, if the CMOS battery failed to operate?

    • profile image

      maa Ruham 

      4 months ago

      good

    • profile image

      chamara 

      4 months ago

      he he

    • profile image

      Bikash shrestha 

      4 months ago

      It is very useful

    • profile image

      Daniel Koch Agok 

      5 months ago

      It's so great to get what always fail me to understand. Thanks..

    • profile image

      M A Mamunur Rasid 

      6 months ago

      Thanks

    • profile image

      Ayinde Oluwaseun Olanrewaju Joseph 

      6 months ago

      This is a bit helpful

    • profile image

      Sander Kvenild 

      7 months ago

      This article is severely outdated:

      The CPU needs to be compatible with the chipset, if they are it will also physically compatible with the socket. Some sockets are used several chipsets which are not necessarily compatible with the same CPUs.

      BIOS while still technically still required on newer motherboards has been replaced by UEFI on most motherboards. UEFI supports a lot more features than a simple BIOS, like mouse input and improved graphics.

      CMOS battery should only be removed if you mess up in BIOS and your PC won't pass the Power On Self Test(POST), or if the battery it self is defective, diagnosed by your BIOS/UEFI settings resetting by themselves.

      In modern computers all cache is directly on the same substrate (PCB that goes inside the socket) as the CPU. L1, L2 and L3 are all found all even budget CPUs.

      The PCI bus has been replaced by the newer and faster PCI-E (PCI Express). These are not backwards or forwards compatible.

      The ISA and EISA connectors were replaced by PCI many years ago.

      On modern motherboards the North-bridge and South-bridge have been combined into a single chip simply refered to as the chipset and is physically located where the south-bridge used to be. Some of its functions have been absorbed into the CPU.

      Today chipsets Intel and AMD produce the chipsets for their own CPUs, and nobody else does it for them.

      Jumper pins on the back of CD/DVD drives have been removed for ages.

      If this article was in any way influenced by the book linked under 'More Resources' it too is outdated.

      This article would have been great 10+ years ago, but in 2018+ it is outdated and should not be used by anyone who isn't interested in retro computers.

    • profile image

      CHONG SAMUEL SUNDAY 

      7 months ago

      Grate quick to understand and get my answer.

      thanks.

    • profile image

      francis 

      7 months ago

      thank you for notes

    • profile image

      swaran 

      8 months ago

      what is the role of level 3 cache,In cache memory?

    • profile image

      lordlie 

      8 months ago

      how to unblock a site ?

    • profile image

      wdickie5@rogers.com 

      8 months ago

      what is the mother board for hp 2000 pavilion entertainment

      p/n ez649ua#ab

      thank you

    • profile image

      avinash 

      9 months ago

      is a computer run without rom

    • profile image

      axchellious grefalda 

      9 months ago

      the main printed circuit board in a computer is known as the motherboard.ther names for this central unit are system board...can motherboard be?

    • profile image

      hugues di taprooo 

      9 months ago

      wonderfull

    • profile image

      princesslyn 

      9 months ago

      a song? Its all about the all parts of mother board! Please

      Author? Can you hep me to do

    • profile image

      sam 

      10 months ago

      thank you

    • profile image

      mohammed 

      10 months ago

      excellent.....................

    • profile image

      Mithilesh 

      11 months ago

      It is useful for my school studies

    • profile image

      dilaine gallego 

      11 months ago

      cute

    • profile image

      Hi 

      11 months ago

      great for information

    • profile image

      anonymous 

      12 months ago

      could anyone give me a free coding practice website

    • profile image

      Ezima john 

      12 months ago

      what are the similar problems of a computer system and their solution

    • profile image

      Jeff 

      13 months ago

      You could have used newer hardware. The AGP and PCI slots were replaced by pci-express in 2003

    • profile image

      Mschaurasia2011@gmail.com 

      13 months ago

      Given information is valuable and satisfing

    • profile image

      Ajit Pai 

      13 months ago

      this good, thanks four help mi frend

    • profile image

      Aherezaanold@gmail.com 

      13 months ago

      Very nice

    • Patkay profile imageAUTHOR

      Patrick Kamau 

      13 months ago from Nairobi, Kenya

      Thanks a lot Rahmatullah for the comment. I am glad that you learnt something from this article about computer motherboards.

    • profile image

      Rahmatullah 

      13 months ago

      Very good lecture

    • Patkay profile imageAUTHOR

      Patrick Kamau 

      13 months ago from Nairobi, Kenya

      Andrew, I am glad you learned a lot from my article. Keep reading and all the best.

    • profile image

      andrew 

      13 months ago

      as a student i have learned a lot drom your blog... thanks a lot..

    • profile image

      Sumber Bahasa 

      13 months ago

      Helpful information.

    • Patkay profile imageAUTHOR

      Patrick Kamau 

      14 months ago from Nairobi, Kenya

      You are much welcome Niku Moni Boro. Keep reading even other works to gain more knowledge.

    • Patkay profile imageAUTHOR

      Patrick Kamau 

      14 months ago from Nairobi, Kenya

      Thanks a lot Piper mcnutt for reading and commenting. I will surely try to add more information regarding the parts of the motherboard and their functions

    • profile image

      piper mcnutt 

      14 months ago

      very interesting but i think yo should include ALL OF THE INFORMATION!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

    • profile image

      Niku Moni Boro 

      14 months ago

      very nice ...thnks

    • profile image

      Ritu mehta 

      14 months ago

      Wow nice

    • profile image

      ETIEBET 

      14 months ago

      Nice

    • profile image

      fleen d,soza 

      14 months ago

      how to using for 20- atx power conectar

    • profile image

      Joryl De Perkiod 

      14 months ago

      wow magic

    • profile image

      md mirazul haque 

      14 months ago

      very nyc

    • profile image

      pc 

      14 months ago

      hi sweet

    • Patkay profile imageAUTHOR

      Patrick Kamau 

      14 months ago from Nairobi, Kenya

      In a PC, graphics rendering originally took place in the CPU. Over time, functions were offloaded to separate circuits and then to GPUs either in separate cards, the PC's chipset or the CPU chip itself depending on the type of computer.

    • profile image

      Muzammal 

      15 months ago

      Where is GPU???

    • profile image

      MANOJ DUTTA 

      15 months ago

      Nice information. But I found it too long.....

    • Patkay profile imageAUTHOR

      Patrick Kamau 

      15 months ago from Nairobi, Kenya

      Hello Peter, you can start by using the various parts of the motherboard that I have listed on this article.

    • Patkay profile imageAUTHOR

      Patrick Kamau 

      15 months ago from Nairobi, Kenya

      Thanks, Sebusiso for appreciating the work in this article. I am glad you got what you wanted to know about different parts of the motherboard.

    • profile image

      Peter 

      15 months ago

      Thank you sir, blessing follow you.

      I need 15 internal device, location and their function

    • profile image

      Sebusiso 

      15 months ago

      Thanks a lot guys, I gained a lot. nice work indeed

    • profile image

      dfsFZsaF 

      15 months ago

      nice work

    • profile image

      adityw 

      15 months ago

      excellent by patrick

    • profile image

      jj 

      15 months ago

      fine

    • profile image

      Kajangcs 

      15 months ago

      Very informative.

    • profile image

      vickyaaaking 

      15 months ago

      Very nice

    • profile image

      ANDREI BRILLO 

      15 months ago

      IS NICE TO BE HERE IN THIS SITE

    • profile image

      Nitish kumar 

      15 months ago

      This is interesting...

    • profile image

      dommy Jazz 

      15 months ago

      good illustration of course, i have really benefited. keep this up.

    • profile image

      Jaylord James Trocio Dinawanao 

      15 months ago

      not bad

    • profile image

      oliveciara046 @gmail.com 

      16 months ago

      So interesting and useful

    • profile image

      soujanyakattajiwar@gmail.com 

      16 months ago

      I'm understanding the CHM concepts and motherboard parts........so nice nd good....thank you patrick kamau......

    • profile image

      rea 

      16 months ago

      nice and soo helpfull

    • profile image

      SedRick_lEaRnS 

      16 months ago

      Nice and its helpful

    • profile image

      OKAFOR JONATHAN 

      16 months ago

      NICE ONE....TOO UNDERSTANDABLE.....THANK YOU PATRICK.....GOD BLESS YOU

    • profile image

      Richard Cornell 

      16 months ago

      It was too long ago what you talked about was current, but as life goes on what was treasure once is now land fill. So will be all that you wrote about.

    • profile image

      aisha 

      16 months ago

      thanks for this

    • profile image

      ritik jain 

      16 months ago

      Thanks for mother bord diagram

    • profile image

      surendran 

      16 months ago

      mother board

    • profile image

      Mustapha S Charles 

      16 months ago

      Subject understood, but is there any PC that has an optional operating system as alternative? as i just had from some one that it is there.

    • profile image

      manjare 

      17 months ago

      very very very nice

    • profile image

      robinson 

      17 months ago

      It gave the much needed info

    • profile image

      suraj mishra 

      17 months ago

      Very nice

    • profile image

      sammy 

      17 months ago

      It's nice bro very helpful

    • profile image

      Deepak singh 

      18 months ago

      Very good

    working

    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, turbofuture.com uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at: https://turbofuture.com/privacy-policy#gdpr

    Show Details
    Necessary
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the googleapis.com or gstatic.com domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Features
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Marketing
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Statistics
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)
    ClickscoThis is a data management platform studying reader behavior (Privacy Policy)