Types of Transmission Media

Updated on May 5, 2016
Coaxial cable
Coaxial cable

TRANSMISSION MEDIA

The means through which data is transformed from one place to another is called transmission or communication media. There are two categories of transmission media used in computer communications.

  • BOUNDED/GUIDED MEDIA
  • UNBOUNDED/UNGUIDED MEDIA

1. BOUNDED MEDIA:

Bounded media are the physical links through which signals are confined to narrow path. These are also called guide media. Bounded media are made up o a external conductor (Usually Copper) bounded by jacket material. Bounded media are great for LABS because they offer high speed, good security and low cast. However, some time they cannot be used due distance communication. Three common types of bounded media are used of the data transmission. These are

  • Coaxial Cable
  • Twisted Pairs Cable
  • Fiber Optics Cable

COAXIAL CABLE:

Coaxial cable is very common & widely used commutation media. For example TV wire is usually coaxial.

Coaxial cable gets its name because it contains two conductors that are parallel to each other. The center conductor in the cable is usually copper. The copper can be either a solid wire or stranded martial.

Outside this central Conductor is a non-conductive material. It is usually white, plastic material used to separate the inner Conductor form the outer Conductor. The other Conductor is a fine mesh made from Copper. It is used to help shield the cable form EMI.

Outside the copper mesh is the final protective cover. (as shown in Fig)

The actual data travels through the center conductor in the cable. EMI interference is caught by outer copper mesh. There are different types of coaxial cable vary by gauge & impedance.

Gauge is the measure of the cable thickness. It is measured by the Radio grade measurement, or RG number. The high the RG number, the thinner the central conductor core, the lower the number the thicker the core.

Here the most common coaxial standards.

  • 50-Ohm RG-7 or RG-11 : used with thick Ethernet.
  • 50-Ohm RG-58 : used with thin Ethernet
  • 75-Ohm RG-59 : used with cable television
  • 93-Ohm RG-62 : used with ARCNET.


CHARACTERISTICS OF COAXIAL CABLE

  • Low cost
  • Easy to install
  • Up to 10Mbps capacity
  • Medium immunity form EMI
  • Medium of attenuation

ADVANTAGES COAXIAL CABLE

  • Inexpensive
  • Easy to wire
  • Easy to expand
  • Moderate level of EMI immunity

DISADVANTAGE COAXIAL CABLE

  • Single cable failure can take down an entire network

STP
STP
UTP
UTP

Twisted Pair Cable

The most popular network cabling is Twisted pair. It is light weight, easy to install, inexpensive and support many different types of network. It also supports the speed of 100 mps. Twisted pair cabling is made of pairs of solid or stranded copper twisted along each other. The twists are done to reduce vulnerably to EMI and cross talk. The number of pairs in the cable depends on the type. The copper core is usually 22-AWG or 24-AWG, as measured on the American wire gauge standard. There are two types of twisted pairs cabling

1. Unshielded twisted pair (UTP)

2. Shielded twisted pair (STP)

1. Unshielded twisted pair (UTP)

UTP is more common. It can be either voice grade or data grade depending on the condition. UTP cable normally has an impedance of 100 ohm. UTP cost less than STP and easily available due to its many use. There are five levels of data cabling

Category 1

These are used in telephone lines and low speed data cable.

Category 2

These cables can support up to 4 mps implementation.

Category 3

These cable supports up to 16 mps and are mostly used in 10 mps.

Category 4

These are used for large distance and high speed. It can support 20mps.

Category 5

This is the highest rating for UTP cable and can support up to 100mps.

UTP cables consist of 2 or 4 pairs of twisted cable. Cable with 2 pair use RJ-11 connector and 4 pair cable use RJ-45 connector.

Characteristics of UTP

  •  low cost
  • easy to install
  • High speed capacity
  • High attenuation
  • Effective to EMI
  • 100 meter limit

Advantages of UTP

  • Easy installation
  • Capable of high speed for LAN
  • Low cost

Disadvantages of UTP

  • Short distance due to attenuation

2. Shielded twisted pair (STP)

It is similar to UTP but has a mesh shielding that’s protects it from EMI which allows for higher transmission rate.

IBM has defined category for STP cable.

Type 1

STP features two pairs of 22-AWG

Type 2

This type include type 1 with 4 telephone pairs

Type 6

This type feature two pairs of standard shielded 26-AWG

Type 7

This type of STP consist of 1 pair of standard shielded 26-AWG

Type 9

This type consist of shielded 26-AWG wire

Characteristics of STP

  • Medium cost
  • Easy to install
  • Higher capacity than UTP
  • Higher attenuation, but same as UTP
  • Medium immunity from EMI
  • 100 meter limit

Advantages of STP:

  • Shielded
  • Faster than UTP and coaxial

Disadvantages of STP:

  • More expensive than UTP and coaxial
  • More difficult installation
  • High attenuation rate

Fiber Optics

Fiber optic cable uses electrical signals to transmit data. It uses light. In fiber optic cable light only moves in one direction for two way communication to take place a second connection must be made between the two devices. It is actually two stands of cable. Each stand is responsible for one direction of communication. A laser at one device sends pulse of light through this cable to other device. These pulses translated into “1’s” and “0’s” at the other end.

In the center of fiber cable is a glass stand or core. The light from the laser moves through this glass to the other device around the internal core is a reflective material known as CLADDING. No light escapes the glass core because of this reflective cladding.

Fiber optic cable has bandwidth more than 2 gbps (Gigabytes per Second)

Characteristics Of Fiber Optic Cable:

  • Expensive
  • Very hard to install
  • Capable of extremely high speed
  • Extremely low attenuation
  • No EMI interference

Advantages Of Fiber Optic Cable:

  • Fast
  • Low attenuation
  • No EMI interference

Disadvantages Fiber Optics:

  • Very costly
  • Hard to install

This article is accurate and true to the best of the author’s knowledge. Content is for informational or entertainment purposes only and does not substitute for personal counsel or professional advice in business, financial, legal, or technical matters.

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    • profile image

      Lil j 

      2 months ago

      Good info

    • profile image

      Bright 

      3 months ago

      please the authors details... i want to cite this article

    • profile image

      gudmankinga 

      4 months ago

      Good Work

    • profile image

      silly mshamu 

      4 months ago

      how about unguided

    • profile image

      chandrakantraval9599@gmsil.com 

      4 months ago

      easy to understand.........and also very clear concept.thanks.

    • profile image

      Fari 

      6 months ago

      Easy to understand

      Thanks...

    • profile image

      John ojwang 

      6 months ago

      smart notes

    • profile image

      nikhil 

      7 months ago

      good notes

    • profile image

      Ayushi 

      9 months ago

      Perfect answer

    • profile image

      Vedansh 

      10 months ago

      Perfect explination

    • profile image

      ria 

      10 months ago

      easy to understanding...thank you for the notes

    • profile image

      manju 

      10 months ago

      Good

    • profile image

      Adeel 

      10 months ago

      helpful

    • profile image

      manas 

      10 months ago

      good explain..

    • profile image

      Addis berhanu 

      11 months ago

      what about unbounded data transfer

    • profile image

      harsh AWANA 

      11 months ago

      I need information about transmission media ,not their type. It is need to write more about transmission media. but other content are good .

    • profile image

      percy st 

      11 months ago

      good notes

    • profile image

      leo 

      12 months ago

      good explaining...

    • profile image

      peter 

      12 months ago

      good

    • profile image

      Aghdngth 

      13 months ago

      Awesome

    • profile image

      Tuwee 

      13 months ago

      Awesome

    • profile image

      kkkmm 

      13 months ago

      Really............

      it is very help full

      thank u very much............

      it is very outstanding explanation............

    • profile image

      sour candy 

      13 months ago

      nice notes they are helping

    • profile image

      learner 

      13 months ago

      plz what does EMI stands for !!

    • profile image

      jj 

      13 months ago

      nice

    • profile image

      muthu 

      15 months ago

      Excellent

    • profile image

      karkik 

      15 months ago

      awesome

    • profile image

      jamshid 

      16 months ago

      nice note thanks

    • profile image

      kk 

      16 months ago

      nice

    • profile image

      timmo 

      19 months ago

      great site

    • profile image

      ahmad 

      20 months ago

      where is unbounded media

    • profile image

      20 months ago

      Nice

    • profile image

      harshitabansal 

      20 months ago

      where is unbounded media define?

    • profile image

      ken 

      23 months ago

      nice

    • profile image

      Sharan Shrestha 

      2 years ago

      Great Answers,It was the best .And, I like it very much.

    • profile image

      GASPER ANDREW BAKARI 

      2 years ago

      NICE ANSWER

    • profile image

      swaggy 

      2 years ago

      Where is the defination of unbounded

    • profile image

      radadiyagopi13@gmail.com 

      2 years ago

      nice to transmission media and very easy contain

    • profile image

      radikhukhwane 

      2 years ago

      not bad all

    • profile image

      Bedahn Niwampa 

      2 years ago

      its so nyc and it makes one understand much better,thx alot

    • profile image

      baalagajakreedan 

      2 years ago

      Nice notes

    • profile image

      blob:54B52A6A-3840-4DFE-A74F-9759EFDA8A16 

      2 years ago

      nice

    • profile image

      saruni 

      2 years ago

      cheers..simle and clear

    • profile image

      ankita 

      2 years ago

      Simple n grt notes

    • profile image

      Saniya memon 

      2 years ago

      Very nice explanation..

    • profile image

      s samridha 

      2 years ago

      good explanation

    • profile image

      Singh Sneha 

      2 years ago

      Nice answer! It is very easy to understand transmission media in networking..

    • profile image

      Pradeep 

      2 years ago

      A good tute.. butr doesn't have unguided media as it mentioned in the topic

    • profile image

      m dodo 

      2 years ago

      thanks

    • profile image

      Levis Andrew sui 

      2 years ago

      Thanks finding very useful,,, but information about Unbounded is not being added

    • profile image

      bbvines 

      2 years ago

      thank u

    • profile image

      piyush singh 

      2 years ago

      It is good but give full information

    • profile image

      killer982839429994392293939920993939 

      3 years ago

      thnx

    • profile image

      Rush....! 

      3 years ago

      Bro, this is so small information can u plz give us a full information....?

    • profile image

      Rushikesh Mane 

      3 years ago

      Bro, this is so small information can u plz give us a full information....?

    • profile image

      cinna 

      3 years ago

      it was good in terms of understanding but u seriously need to work on ur english

    • profile image

      mark 

      3 years ago

      nice

    • profile image

      Ibtu 

      4 years ago

      This is awesome

    • profile image

      nikhitha 

      4 years ago

      Really it helped me a lot. Thanks

    • profile image

      keena 

      4 years ago

      useless and does not help at all!!

    • profile image

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      4 years ago

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      4 years ago

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      4 years ago

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      4 years ago

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      4 years ago

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      4 years ago

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      5 years ago

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      michaelkemsens 

      5 years ago

      21 months ago

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      5 years ago

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      Golu chauhan 

      5 years ago

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      5 years ago

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      5 years ago

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      5 years ago

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      SURENDRA 

      5 years ago

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      5 years ago

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      5 years ago

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      5 years ago

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      5 years ago

      Easy to understand

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      5 years ago

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      5 years ago

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      5 years ago

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      5 years ago

      Its very nice information.

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      ARPIT 

      5 years ago

      Exellent theory

    • profile image

      mukut 

      5 years ago

      nice and hel ful.......very easy to understand

    • profile image

      mallika sherawat 

      5 years ago

      wah.... ye notes to mere kapdo ki trah bhut kam h...

    • profile image

      preeeeemm chopra 

      5 years ago

      uhh lala uhh lala................. melo ko malum tha te tu kuth dalbal klega....

    • profile image

      rekha 

      5 years ago

      saalo kutto kya h ye .... bakwas pel rakhi h... hattt chup kro sab..........

    • profile image

      vani yadav 

      5 years ago

      very nice information.I like this information. It is very easy to understand. tooo good......

    • profile image

      dhanaji 

      5 years ago

      to good

    • profile image

      felling 

      5 years ago

      nice ............................

    • profile image

      Suman 

      5 years ago

      It is very nice. thanks!!!!!!

    • profile image

      Roshni De 

      5 years ago

      Thanks..............

    • profile image

      janelle 

      6 years ago

      i learnt a lot from thanks a lot

    • profile image

      Tatiani 

      6 years ago

      great!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

    • profile image

      nik sharma 

      6 years ago

      gud, but not full information....

    • profile image

      Basharat Toori 

      6 years ago

      Its too much easy to understand Trasmission Media , but it will be more fabulous if Unbounded Media notes were also posted.

      thanks a lot......,,,.,.,.,

    • profile image

      manooooooj 

      6 years ago

      supper maxxa habai chatr

    • profile image

      janaka 

      6 years ago

      good good............i like.............

    • profile image

      it is clear presentation about transmission media 10Q for support help us 

      6 years ago

      It is very clear presentation about transmission media please keep it up on the Area 10Q for help us

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