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Types of Transmission Media

Updated on May 5, 2016
Coaxial cable
Coaxial cable

TRANSMISSION MEDIA

The means through which data is transformed from one place to another is called transmission or communication media. There are two categories of transmission media used in computer communications.

  • BOUNDED/GUIDED MEDIA
  • UNBOUNDED/UNGUIDED MEDIA

1. BOUNDED MEDIA:

Bounded media are the physical links through which signals are confined to narrow path. These are also called guide media. Bounded media are made up o a external conductor (Usually Copper) bounded by jacket material. Bounded media are great for LABS because they offer high speed, good security and low cast. However, some time they cannot be used due distance communication. Three common types of bounded media are used of the data transmission. These are

  • Coaxial Cable
  • Twisted Pairs Cable
  • Fiber Optics Cable

COAXIAL CABLE:

Coaxial cable is very common & widely used commutation media. For example TV wire is usually coaxial.

Coaxial cable gets its name because it contains two conductors that are parallel to each other. The center conductor in the cable is usually copper. The copper can be either a solid wire or stranded martial.

Outside this central Conductor is a non-conductive material. It is usually white, plastic material used to separate the inner Conductor form the outer Conductor. The other Conductor is a fine mesh made from Copper. It is used to help shield the cable form EMI.

Outside the copper mesh is the final protective cover. (as shown in Fig)

The actual data travels through the center conductor in the cable. EMI interference is caught by outer copper mesh. There are different types of coaxial cable vary by gauge & impedance.

Gauge is the measure of the cable thickness. It is measured by the Radio grade measurement, or RG number. The high the RG number, the thinner the central conductor core, the lower the number the thicker the core.

Here the most common coaxial standards.

  • 50-Ohm RG-7 or RG-11 : used with thick Ethernet.
  • 50-Ohm RG-58 : used with thin Ethernet
  • 75-Ohm RG-59 : used with cable television
  • 93-Ohm RG-62 : used with ARCNET.


CHARACTERISTICS OF COAXIAL CABLE

  • Low cost
  • Easy to install
  • Up to 10Mbps capacity
  • Medium immunity form EMI
  • Medium of attenuation

ADVANTAGES COAXIAL CABLE

  • Inexpensive
  • Easy to wire
  • Easy to expand
  • Moderate level of EMI immunity

DISADVANTAGE COAXIAL CABLE

  • Single cable failure can take down an entire network

STP
STP
UTP
UTP

Twisted Pair Cable

The most popular network cabling is Twisted pair. It is light weight, easy to install, inexpensive and support many different types of network. It also supports the speed of 100 mps. Twisted pair cabling is made of pairs of solid or stranded copper twisted along each other. The twists are done to reduce vulnerably to EMI and cross talk. The number of pairs in the cable depends on the type. The copper core is usually 22-AWG or 24-AWG, as measured on the American wire gauge standard. There are two types of twisted pairs cabling

1. Unshielded twisted pair (UTP)

2. Shielded twisted pair (STP)

1. Unshielded twisted pair (UTP)

UTP is more common. It can be either voice grade or data grade depending on the condition. UTP cable normally has an impedance of 100 ohm. UTP cost less than STP and easily available due to its many use. There are five levels of data cabling

Category 1

These are used in telephone lines and low speed data cable.

Category 2

These cables can support up to 4 mps implementation.

Category 3

These cable supports up to 16 mps and are mostly used in 10 mps.

Category 4

These are used for large distance and high speed. It can support 20mps.

Category 5

This is the highest rating for UTP cable and can support up to 100mps.

UTP cables consist of 2 or 4 pairs of twisted cable. Cable with 2 pair use RJ-11 connector and 4 pair cable use RJ-45 connector.

Characteristics of UTP

  •  low cost
  • easy to install
  • High speed capacity
  • High attenuation
  • Effective to EMI
  • 100 meter limit

Advantages of UTP

  • Easy installation
  • Capable of high speed for LAN
  • Low cost

Disadvantages of UTP

  • Short distance due to attenuation

2. Shielded twisted pair (STP)

It is similar to UTP but has a mesh shielding that’s protects it from EMI which allows for higher transmission rate.

IBM has defined category for STP cable.

Type 1

STP features two pairs of 22-AWG

Type 2

This type include type 1 with 4 telephone pairs

Type 6

This type feature two pairs of standard shielded 26-AWG

Type 7

This type of STP consist of 1 pair of standard shielded 26-AWG

Type 9

This type consist of shielded 26-AWG wire

Characteristics of STP

  • Medium cost
  • Easy to install
  • Higher capacity than UTP
  • Higher attenuation, but same as UTP
  • Medium immunity from EMI
  • 100 meter limit

Advantages of STP:

  • Shielded
  • Faster than UTP and coaxial

Disadvantages of STP:

  • More expensive than UTP and coaxial
  • More difficult installation
  • High attenuation rate

Fiber Optics

Fiber optic cable uses electrical signals to transmit data. It uses light. In fiber optic cable light only moves in one direction for two way communication to take place a second connection must be made between the two devices. It is actually two stands of cable. Each stand is responsible for one direction of communication. A laser at one device sends pulse of light through this cable to other device. These pulses translated into “1’s” and “0’s” at the other end.

In the center of fiber cable is a glass stand or core. The light from the laser moves through this glass to the other device around the internal core is a reflective material known as CLADDING. No light escapes the glass core because of this reflective cladding.

Fiber optic cable has bandwidth more than 2 gbps (Gigabytes per Second)

Characteristics Of Fiber Optic Cable:

  • Expensive
  • Very hard to install
  • Capable of extremely high speed
  • Extremely low attenuation
  • No EMI interference

Advantages Of Fiber Optic Cable:

  • Fast
  • Low attenuation
  • No EMI interference

Disadvantages Fiber Optics:

  • Very costly
  • Hard to install

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      timmo 2 weeks ago

      great site

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      ahmad 6 weeks ago

      where is unbounded media

    • profile image

      6 weeks ago

      Nice

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      harshitabansal 7 weeks ago

      where is unbounded media define?

    • profile image

      ken 4 months ago

      nice

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      Sharan Shrestha 5 months ago

      Great Answers,It was the best .And, I like it very much.

    • profile image

      GASPER ANDREW BAKARI 6 months ago

      NICE ANSWER

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      swaggy 6 months ago

      Where is the defination of unbounded

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      radadiyagopi13@gmail.com 7 months ago

      nice to transmission media and very easy contain

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      radikhukhwane 7 months ago

      not bad all

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      Bedahn Niwampa 10 months ago

      its so nyc and it makes one understand much better,thx alot

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      baalagajakreedan 10 months ago

      Nice notes

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      blob:54B52A6A-3840-4DFE-A74F-9759EFDA8A16 11 months ago

      nice

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      cheers..simle and clear

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      Simple n grt notes

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      Very nice explanation..

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      good explanation

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      Singh Sneha 14 months ago

      Nice answer! It is very easy to understand transmission media in networking..

    • profile image

      Pradeep 15 months ago

      A good tute.. butr doesn't have unguided media as it mentioned in the topic

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      m dodo 15 months ago

      thanks

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      Levis Andrew sui 15 months ago

      Thanks finding very useful,,, but information about Unbounded is not being added

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      bbvines 16 months ago

      thank u

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      It is good but give full information

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      thnx

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      21 months ago

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      Exellent theory

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      nice and hel ful.......very easy to understand

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      to good

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      great!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

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      nik sharma 4 years ago

      gud, but not full information....

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      Basharat Toori 4 years ago

      Its too much easy to understand Trasmission Media , but it will be more fabulous if Unbounded Media notes were also posted.

      thanks a lot......,,,.,.,.,

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      it is clear presentation about transmission media 10Q for support help us 4 years ago

      It is very clear presentation about transmission media please keep it up on the Area 10Q for help us

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      vinita singh 4 years ago

      CITIZEN CARD SYSTEM

      INTRODUCTION TO PROJECT

      A Citizen Card (also called Identification or ID) is any proof which may be used to verify aspects of a person’s personal Identification. If issued in the form of a small, mostly standard-sized card, it is usually called an identity card (IC). In some countries the possession of a government-produced identity card is compulsory while in others it may be voluntary. In countries which do not have formal identity documents, informal ones may in some circumstances be required.

      Many organizations need to be sure of your age or identity. Using a Citizen Card is voluntary, but it can make life much easier. Even if you have a passport or driving license, Citizen Card means you can leave these more valuable documents safely at home. Using a Citizen Card means that you can access the products and services to which you are entitled.

      Most shops, pubs, clubs, airlines (domestic flights) and other organizations recognize Citizen Card as valid photo-ID or proof-of-age. As a scheme audited by the Trading Standards Institute Citizen Card was the first scheme to carry PASS (Proof of Age Standards Scheme) accreditation, supported by the Home Office.

      The Citizen Card System keeps details of citizens on our database so that if someone queries your card we can confirm that you are a legitimate cardholder. We also provide Experian, an information company, with access to Citizen Card data for the purpose of age validation, identity authentication and fraud prevention. If a website or other organization wishes to ascertain the identity or age of one of its users, Experian can corroborate the information supplied against details held on the Citizen Card database.

      The Model Citizen Card May be like this

      Information Present in this citizen card or in a supporting database might include the bearer’s full name, Photograph, age, Date of Birth, Address, and Citizen Card Number. The western countries like United Kingdom and the United States especially, government-issued compulsory identity cards or, more precisely, their centralized database are a source of debate as they are regarded as an infringement of privacy and civil liberties. Most criticism is directed towards the enhanced possibilities of extensive abuse of centralized and comprehensive databases storing sensitive data.

      PURPOSE OF THE PROJECT

      The Project ‘Citizen Card System’ gives us the information about the citizen in any country. A Citizen has unique Id to find out the personal information in each and every department or service wherever a citizen goes. This information can be found out by the unique Id of the citizen. If any citizen wants to utilize the services or utilities by the Government or Private organizations, he has to go to each and every department with different Id for that particular department. Instead, a citizen card helps in having all the utilities and services under one unique Id. This system not only helps us to know the information about the services or utilities but also it gives the information about the character of the citizen in credit rating.

      PROBLEM IN EXISTING SYSTEM

      The existing system is a manual or semi automated system, i.e. citizen information in the country can be stored in the form of Books or thin databases like Ms excel etc. The major problem of this information is data can be stored in various formats, sometimes it may be changed between states in the country.

      Another tedious problems is searching the information of a citizen, it is not an easy thing to find out of citizen information like India. Sharing data from one department to another department is not possible; it may cause lot of delay because data is not centralized.

      • It has been argued that identity cards impose a disproportionate burden upon both government and citizens while empowering the executive, which is contrary to the maxim: “the government that governs best governs least”.

      • In many cases, other forms of documentation such as a driver’s license, passport, or Issuing Credit card serve a similar function for that identify a citizen through manually system is a tedious process.

      • The cost of introducing and administering a Citizen Card System can be very high.

      • Age, address, personal details verification of a citizen is not that much of easier.

      • Observing that illegal immigration into the country was posing a serious threat to national security, a high-powered government committee has strongly recommended a unique identity card for citizens is compulsory.

      • The recommendation assumes significance amidst reports of a large number of Bangladeshi immigrants and terrorists sneaking into the country from across the borders.

      SOLUTION OF THESE PROBLEMS

      The Citizen Card is treated as Official ID and proof-of-age for anyone resident in Country. This Card is recommended by Trading Standards, the Police, and shops, pubs, local authorities, schools, MPs and many other organizations.

      By Citizen Card System we can solve major problems

      1) Stop Infiltration

      2) Easy Identification of Person

      3) Stop corruption

      4) Stop Tax Evasion

      5) Maintain the history of every person

      PROPOSED SYSTEM

      Advantages

      • Identity verification in banks or at national borders with a standard Citizen card would be simpler than with a physically bulky passport, especially if banks don’t accept residents having foreign passports.

      • Eligibility or ownership verification would be facilitated (for example, when paying with a credit card or cheque, or attempting to buy age-restricted products).

      • False identification may be reduced where identity cards are required to access a bank account. Of course, phishing and many other forms of identity theft will be unaffected.

      • Citizen Cards can be a useful administrative tool that can increase efficiency in dealings with both the government and private companies.

      • Cards may help reduce immigration service bureaucracy. In certain countries, the procedures for deporting illegal immigrants whose ages, identities or nationalities cannot be formally established are more complex than those for whom they can be readily asserted. This gives illegal immigrants more time to prepare their legal defence.

      • In many countries ID Cards are given only to citizens, these can be a source of pride since they are often the most tangible proof of citizenship.

      • Commercial organizations such as banks typically do not try to authenticate the identity of a person, but rather the validity of a transactions (e.g. by signature or PIN) due to the acknowledged difficulty in reliably identifying an individual in a fraud proof and convenient manner.

      • And the Citizen Card System database that exhaustively covers the whole population is perhaps the only way of ensuring a direct two-way interaction between the state and the citizen; as the unique Citizen ID is necessary for the state and its agencies to correctly identify the unique individual on the other end.

      • In other words, there will continue to be a passport database with the external affairs ministry, a PAN database with the finance ministry, a terrorist database with the home ministry, a BPL database with the state governments, the election commission’s voters database, and so on. Each of these databases will eventually have one more piece of information — the Citizen Id number.

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      My sampling courses to be defensible with asset deep dyed solution innovate of cancer and diabetes statistic of education which can be the over view future solution of cancer and diabetes treatments in our countries ; why caries our this words “say “ together we defeat cancer and diabetes that be approach to do the research in our surrounding environments .

      My permission to receive the out site courses as a researcher of cancer and diabetes conspicu-ous to remain with my environments discovery drugs as a search cancer and diabetes in educational level with situation defensively in physician field conspiratorial statistics for cancer and diabetes educational rules to avoids cancer and diabetes in our local communities .

      The source of my strategy for integration on education in Cameroon ; when I complete my secondary degree approve with complexification and computant innovate in upper sixth for exemption focus with research as an environmentalist scientific researcher .

      I perfectly join a team of researcher with an ideas for cancer and diabetes with capacity of physics and technology as a student under a track of cancer and diabetes . In our localities disseminate information for cancer and diabetes carries out research organizing event to enable our scientific improvements working relations with local councilors and government achieve for cancer and diabetes solutions or to avoids in order to get advise in new research discovery the ideas in our communities .

      My constructive working relationship to join the cancer and diabetes of education authorities which is a key part of accessing power and decision working on behalf of our communities field according to our environmental meteorology drugs capacities as check point for resistance ; existing ; and expiring on the space focusing innovation impact .

      My research discussing of cancer and diabetes in education ideas for changes and related with cancer and diabetes specification capacities of research which is probabilities in having a local community backing to our environments scientific researches for cancer and diabetes as a project that can make a huge difference to the success of our scheme .

      My further information about cancer and diabetes in education program along the race with some cases studies from abroad which I am a student of five universities of distance courses from abroad online throughout internet with physicians ; and hospital s while changing courses with association ; co-operative medical investigators scientific researchers invest intellectuals as my partnership for cancer and diabetes from ENGALND ; U SA . CANADA and INDIA which we are asserting experience for cancer and diabetes together .

      To my further acknowledgement information interesting activities in our communities to invest my research scientific for cancer and diabetes in education system perfectly which I am interested to become your partner in physics department as a searcher according to your administrators argument with my underlying philosophy for cancer and diabetes research out and distance courses to require this application ; describing scientific phenomena in rewording and intellectual undergraduate and graduate in cancer and diabetes researching for educational text .

      My act accomplishment for cancer and diabetes as a searcher recently a great deal in professional skill to combine the old research with our model system to act sure with science and technology . The word important is for health I wish to inform you that I have sent directly my last cancer research discovery book to ISEC with some capacity notes and idea of teaching physics as a physician . Where do I make my power as a researcher particular ; is not because of online course ; is not different laboratories that I have been visiting ; what do I mean by my specific life career as a track researcher particular for cancer and diabetes I hope is because of hard working . Normally according to my research discovery for eight years and two year online courses I have ran good obstacles race ; today am changing my research scientific courses with many universities abroad ; researchers associations ; physicians and cancer and diabetes hospitals . I have never study many tracks of health even when I was in cross river calabar Nigeria where I started developing my research .

      Physician leaders ;Healthcare leaders are finding that physician integration will be critical for achieving the increased efficiencies and coordination necessary for meeting healthcare reform standards and for producing savings drugs for cancer and anybody microbes . Although integral to the formation of accountable care organizations, hospitals are pursuing physician integration regardless of plans to create an ACO because of the changing the laws and the medicinal strategies in healthcare. While these changes are just beginning, several chief medical officers and medical affairs executives share challenges and strategies to establ

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      Lushi Grey 4 years ago

      easy to understand.........and also very clear concept.thanks.

    • profile image

      karan 4 years ago

      Very important information thanx

    • profile image

      ermias girma 4 years ago

      nice 10Q

    • profile image

      jahckzoo 4 years ago

      very helpful, good work thanx..

    • profile image

      rohith 4 years ago

      easy.....and simple..great wrk thnks...

    • profile image

      samra 4 years ago

      nice info given

    • profile image

      khan tanzila 4 years ago

      It is wel & good but it is very short easy in understand

      ing

    • profile image

      Nazik shah 4 years ago

      Nice

    • profile image

      dharshini 4 years ago

      i really want to thank the producer of the "hubpages" .......

    • profile image

      divya 4 years ago

      this notes were very useful to me and it will be more helpful for my sem exam......i really want to thank who made this notes.......

    • profile image

      JITHU 4 years ago

      itzzz good :)

      but itz very good if u give unbounded notes

    • profile image

      Anshul 4 years ago

      good language and i really thank full who has given this

    • profile image

      Iswariya Surya 4 years ago

      Easy to learn and useful.

    • profile image

      Maher 4 years ago

      beautiful article.

    • profile image

      jomar 4 years ago

      very good

    • profile image

      raj 4 years ago

      i love you all friends

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      anshumalikbadmas@gmalik.com 4 years ago

      it is very nice

      And it will help me in my I.T. project

    • profile image

      Harshanid 4 years ago

      Well short notes & Thank u!!!!

    • profile image

      abc 5 years ago

      nice one

      Keep giving such info ....

      Vry helpful for I.T projects!!!!

    • profile image

      gg 5 years ago

      this is good information

    • profile image

      yash pratap singh 5 years ago

      nice i have got all info.

    • profile image

      RYAN 5 years ago

      great categorys

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      shabinaz 5 years ago

      GOOD n Easy explanation

    • profile image

      krishnaveni 5 years ago

      you should be mentioned about wireless transmission media.

    • profile image

      milley 5 years ago

      nice content