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Types of Transmission Media

Updated on May 05, 2016

Joined: 7 years agoFollowers: 47Articles: 90
Coaxial cable
Coaxial cable

TRANSMISSION MEDIA

The means through which data is transformed from one place to another is called transmission or communication media. There are two categories of transmission media used in computer communications.

  • BOUNDED/GUIDED MEDIA
  • UNBOUNDED/UNGUIDED MEDIA

1. BOUNDED MEDIA:

Bounded media are the physical links through which signals are confined to narrow path. These are also called guide media. Bounded media are made up o a external conductor (Usually Copper) bounded by jacket material. Bounded media are great for LABS because they offer high speed, good security and low cast. However, some time they cannot be used due distance communication. Three common types of bounded media are used of the data transmission. These are

  • Coaxial Cable
  • Twisted Pairs Cable
  • Fiber Optics Cable

COAXIAL CABLE:

Coaxial cable is very common & widely used commutation media. For example TV wire is usually coaxial.

Coaxial cable gets its name because it contains two conductors that are parallel to each other. The center conductor in the cable is usually copper. The copper can be either a solid wire or stranded martial.

Outside this central Conductor is a non-conductive material. It is usually white, plastic material used to separate the inner Conductor form the outer Conductor. The other Conductor is a fine mesh made from Copper. It is used to help shield the cable form EMI.

Outside the copper mesh is the final protective cover. (as shown in Fig)

The actual data travels through the center conductor in the cable. EMI interference is caught by outer copper mesh. There are different types of coaxial cable vary by gauge & impedance.

Gauge is the measure of the cable thickness. It is measured by the Radio grade measurement, or RG number. The high the RG number, the thinner the central conductor core, the lower the number the thicker the core.

Here the most common coaxial standards.

  • 50-Ohm RG-7 or RG-11 : used with thick Ethernet.
  • 50-Ohm RG-58 : used with thin Ethernet
  • 75-Ohm RG-59 : used with cable television
  • 93-Ohm RG-62 : used with ARCNET.


CHARACTERISTICS OF COAXIAL CABLE

  • Low cost
  • Easy to install
  • Up to 10Mbps capacity
  • Medium immunity form EMI
  • Medium of attenuation

ADVANTAGES COAXIAL CABLE

  • Inexpensive
  • Easy to wire
  • Easy to expand
  • Moderate level of EMI immunity

DISADVANTAGE COAXIAL CABLE

  • Single cable failure can take down an entire network

STP
STP
UTP
UTP

Twisted Pair Cable

The most popular network cabling is Twisted pair. It is light weight, easy to install, inexpensive and support many different types of network. It also supports the speed of 100 mps. Twisted pair cabling is made of pairs of solid or stranded copper twisted along each other. The twists are done to reduce vulnerably to EMI and cross talk. The number of pairs in the cable depends on the type. The copper core is usually 22-AWG or 24-AWG, as measured on the American wire gauge standard. There are two types of twisted pairs cabling

1. Unshielded twisted pair (UTP)

2. Shielded twisted pair (STP)

1. Unshielded twisted pair (UTP)

UTP is more common. It can be either voice grade or data grade depending on the condition. UTP cable normally has an impedance of 100 ohm. UTP cost less than STP and easily available due to its many use. There are five levels of data cabling

Category 1

These are used in telephone lines and low speed data cable.

Category 2

These cables can support up to 4 mps implementation.

Category 3

These cable supports up to 16 mps and are mostly used in 10 mps.

Category 4

These are used for large distance and high speed. It can support 20mps.

Category 5

This is the highest rating for UTP cable and can support up to 100mps.

UTP cables consist of 2 or 4 pairs of twisted cable. Cable with 2 pair use RJ-11 connector and 4 pair cable use RJ-45 connector.

Characteristics of UTP

  •  low cost
  • easy to install
  • High speed capacity
  • High attenuation
  • Effective to EMI
  • 100 meter limit

Advantages of UTP

  • Easy installation
  • Capable of high speed for LAN
  • Low cost

Disadvantages of UTP

  • Short distance due to attenuation

2. Shielded twisted pair (STP)

It is similar to UTP but has a mesh shielding that’s protects it from EMI which allows for higher transmission rate.

IBM has defined category for STP cable.

Type 1

STP features two pairs of 22-AWG

Type 2

This type include type 1 with 4 telephone pairs

Type 6

This type feature two pairs of standard shielded 26-AWG

Type 7

This type of STP consist of 1 pair of standard shielded 26-AWG

Type 9

This type consist of shielded 26-AWG wire

Characteristics of STP

  • Medium cost
  • Easy to install
  • Higher capacity than UTP
  • Higher attenuation, but same as UTP
  • Medium immunity from EMI
  • 100 meter limit

Advantages of STP:

  • Shielded
  • Faster than UTP and coaxial

Disadvantages of STP:

  • More expensive than UTP and coaxial
  • More difficult installation
  • High attenuation rate

Fiber Optics

Fiber optic cable uses electrical signals to transmit data. It uses light. In fiber optic cable light only moves in one direction for two way communication to take place a second connection must be made between the two devices. It is actually two stands of cable. Each stand is responsible for one direction of communication. A laser at one device sends pulse of light through this cable to other device. These pulses translated into “1’s” and “0’s” at the other end.

In the center of fiber cable is a glass stand or core. The light from the laser moves through this glass to the other device around the internal core is a reflective material known as CLADDING. No light escapes the glass core because of this reflective cladding.

Fiber optic cable has bandwidth more than 2 gbps (Gigabytes per Second)

Characteristics Of Fiber Optic Cable:

  • Expensive
  • Very hard to install
  • Capable of extremely high speed
  • Extremely low attenuation
  • No EMI interference

Advantages Of Fiber Optic Cable:

  • Fast
  • Low attenuation
  • No EMI interference

Disadvantages Fiber Optics:

  • Very costly
  • Hard to install

Comments

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    • Jeff 6 years ago

      Good work on spelling there but a nice document cheers

    • Rashmi Gandre 6 years ago

      Nice answer! It is very easy way to understand transmission media in networking. Thank you!!!!!!!

    • phathtshedzo 6 years ago

      it is very simple to understand transmission media and network connection cheers

    • sunil 6 years ago

      good defination in simple language.

    • Aryan 6 years ago

      very good definition to understand in a simple language.

    • rajesh 6 years ago

      easy to understand ,give real time examples and explain transmission media

    • sunnyhaider786@yahoo.com 6 years ago

      waoooo., thats the way 2 go

    • feven fekir 6 years ago

      there is is no full information about unbound or unguided transmission media. would you say something?

      thanks

    • DENSIL 6 years ago

      very good explain.

    • roshni 6 years ago

      extremely good really

    • devika  6 years ago

      there is no answer on cable of wire media but thank anyway

    • kuwaiti (: 6 years ago

      Thank u

    • sharu 6 years ago

      guided media k.......wat about unguided media

    • mukesh 6 years ago

      This not full information

    • pinkie 6 years ago

      good but not full information

    • sunitha 6 years ago

      bout unguided??

    • mona 5 years ago

      Good work on spelling there but a nice document cheers

    • Omari British 5 years ago

      Useful information provided ,for this particular topic. THANK YOU!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

    • Liaquat otho 5 years ago

      very best material

    • carl josh 5 years ago

      what a whack

    • nilam 5 years ago

      plz give information about d speed of each media in terms of banwidth

    • dheeraj 5 years ago

      plz give information about speed of each media in terms of bandwidth

    • anurag 5 years ago

      good information

    • vin 5 years ago

      good.... but if its having more deep defination then its good to refer....

    • zewde 5 years ago

      clear description about transmission media components relating to network in very plain & simple language that can be easily understood ,thank you!!!!!!!!!

    • gaurav 5 years ago

      very easy understable matrial to every one

      niceeeeee jobbbbbbb

    • Akshar 5 years ago

      'm feeling sleepy!!

    • manni 5 years ago

      its very easy nd simple wording thanxx

    • Tauqir 5 years ago

      its very easy nd simple wording thanxx

    • geraldine 5 years ago

      nice.. :D

    • sohail leghari 5 years ago

      excellent information

    • hinali 5 years ago

      nice.........

    • rkumar 5 years ago

      Good but very short

    • Balu 5 years ago

      Good

      but unbounded ???

    • ballu balram 5 years ago

      very good definition to understand in a simple language.

    • muhammad waleed 5 years ago

      nice work,,,it help to me to understand what are medias of transmission,,and how they work,,,thanks

    • olando 5 years ago

      you guys make this look so easy

    • jagdeep 5 years ago

      very good explanation

    • ayaz  5 years ago

      easy to under stand

    • M.A Rajput 5 years ago

      Good Article

      keep it up

    • essa rind johi 5 years ago

      nice and easy way to understand the transmission media

    • bad man 5 years ago

      ammmm informatiion 4 unbounded

    • Mahendra  5 years ago

      Good Answer But only Some Word Maching question

    • mozzy da great 5 years ago

      better guidance guys keep up

    • JIMOH RAYMOND 5 years ago

      you made it simple, nice work boy

    • moya j 5 years ago

      i agree wit nilam...bt gud info...

    • roxon 5 years ago

      i agree the article

    • bhavana 5 years ago

      it's to good

    • prathiba 5 years ago

      much useful and better

    • mani11 5 years ago

      nice job................!

    • kkk 5 years ago

      ya vry simple language

    • dipika  5 years ago

      its good information

    • jasmine 5 years ago

      thanks.............it is very use full

    • garima 5 years ago

      it was helpful....

    • pranav&vaisakh 5 years ago

      simple,helpful pls post some good examples with images

    • minakshi 5 years ago

      its easy to understand.....

    • manno 5 years ago

      where is the dscp of UNBOUNDED/UNGUIDED MEDIA

    • Raman 5 years ago

      really nice work done man!....... :))

    • garima sawal 5 years ago

      gud information...

    • Manpreet kaur 5 years ago

      thanxxxxxxx jiiiiiiii.....

      :)

    • rajpreet handa 5 years ago

      this is very easy to understand. thyanxxxxxxxxxx

    • megha 5 years ago

      i hv a ? where is info about UNBOUNDED MEDIA.

    • Complicated meet 5 years ago

      satisfying n easy answer

    • subhash 5 years ago

      nice theory

    • Vishal bhailak 5 years ago

      Nice notes

    • manoj 5 years ago

      sooooooo

      easy

    • vikram 5 years ago

      take some rest.......other wise....you have to rest in peace..................

    • bharti 5 years ago

      very short topic according to our standard

    • manoj 5 years ago

      engg. make it large

    • saahil 5 years ago

      not satisfied they are not complet

    • parminder kaur 5 years ago

      good and easy ........

    • ninad 5 years ago

      we needed this for our pracs.....:)

    • sudhir singh chouhan 5 years ago

      very fine explanation are given for cables....thanx a lot

    • rashpal singh 5 years ago

      v badddddddddddddd

    • Manpreet 5 years ago

      where z unguided media?

    • vrushali 5 years ago

      very nice and good notes

    • naina shekhawat 5 years ago

      very easy answar transmission media than.....

    • harpreet 5 years ago

      good info

    • callum tilbury 5 years ago

      good info for cisco CCNA

    • Pravendra kumawat 5 years ago

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    • Pravendra kumawat 5 years ago

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    • Pravendra kumawat 5 years ago

      hello friends how are you.i m fine.

    • JINCY JOHN 5 years ago

      It seems simple to capture. . . . Very fine explanation. . . .

    • sulabh 5 years ago

      nice information about transmission media

    • kazuba 5 years ago

      Good explanation, talk some thing about unbound

    • saranay 5 years ago

      wre is unguided media

    • danny 5 years ago

      good notes thenx

    • Preet and Happy 5 years ago

      its easy to understand.........thank u very much........

      its also easy to writing in the exam in a short time

    • Isaacbrown94@yahoo.com 5 years ago

      Yeah that really well explainative, thanks for thant anyway, hmm...keep it up¡

    • sid 5 years ago

      thank u...good info

    • ishu panjeta 5 years ago

      best informationnnnnnnnnnnnnnnn

    • mahesh sen 5 years ago

      it is very easy to understand

    • Shruti Soni 5 years ago

      its vry benifical n easy to understand.......

    • kamran ali 5 years ago

      there iz no information about unguided media

    • jony 5 years ago

      what about unguided media??????????????

    • danish 5 years ago

      nice artical

    • nimwijuka eliab 5 years ago

      well done but you forgot to explain unguided t.m

    • Samia Rashid 5 years ago

      Very nice Answer. Thanks a lot.

    • epedzi 5 years ago

      comprehensible

    • jaspreet_kaur32@yahoo.com 5 years ago

      thanks alot

    • Naradsky 5 years ago

      There's no UNBOUNDED/UNGUIDED MEDIA information here. . .

      Hope you could provide details for this topic,,

    • Pari 5 years ago

      Nice...

    • zohair 5 years ago

      great work......really helpful

    • uma shankar 5 years ago

      good collection.....like....

    • venkat 5 years ago

      good

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      information is useless itz u buy nitin.k.wadin publisher bukz ...

    • Dickson 5 years ago

      Wonderful but what abt on unbouned

    • olivia 5 years ago

      where is d next one

    • zaqria 5 years ago

      Thanxxxx its really helpful! but wt about Unguided media?

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      the best meaning i have ever read!!! keep up the good work!!

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      ok ha

    • che 5 years ago

      nice

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    • gowthami 5 years ago

      thq it is easy

    • mukesh kumaar 5 years ago

      very goodddddddddd

    • bhavana 5 years ago

      i think its good for easy remain in bullets point i like it

    • rajasekar 5 years ago

      the types of tr., media is helpful to us...

    • zahid 5 years ago

      very good but i dont understand

    • shan 5 years ago

      Very nice, but what about Unbounded media???

    • kamaljeet kalsi 5 years ago

      thanks a lot fr d information...

    • tarunpreet 5 years ago

      thanx for a simple understanding and easy way of explanation..........

    • Pravendra kumawat 5 years ago

      This provide me a good information

    • Aanchal 5 years ago

      good information

    • NIDS 5 years ago

      nicely explained!

    • Clamo 5 years ago

      Yap its nice! Gd

    • alam 4 years ago

      its very good ,but where is unbounded media

    • bhuvana 4 years ago

      it's very godd...nice information about the transmissin media

    • Macha 4 years ago

      Bounded media is explaned but what about unbounded media ......saaloo...

    • vijendra22 4 years ago

      nice

    • sandy 4 years ago

      it is very useful information for me because this is included in my syllabus...please similarly give information about unguided media.....thank u g..

    • Rehan 4 years ago

      Very Helpful.....

    • @shu... 4 years ago

      very helpful & good

    • heerjordan 4 years ago

      iluv ranbirrrrrrrrr

    • saif 4 years ago

      thank u for all the information it is useful for me.thank u very much.

    • loona 4 years ago

      very nicely explained

    • paul kareez 4 years ago

      Well understood.Thanks

    • amee 4 years ago

      very gud info...it is helpful for me to prepare a report...

    • pradeep kharewal 4 years ago

      really osm response....................

    • smile 4 years ago

      gud information........................................................

    • kevin 4 years ago

      good notes in simple and undrestandble language bt no any details about unbonded media

    • praful 4 years ago

      it is very easy to examples in each point...

    • pooja 4 years ago

      very goooooooooood

    • Happy jalpotia 4 years ago

      Thnx very nice easy to understand

    • latika 4 years ago

      it is very helpful nd easy to understand

      so thanks

    • anu 4 years ago

      no diagrametic representation?????????????///...beside good stuff

    • sukhpreet bhullar 4 years ago

      it would have better with digramm.........

    • shani,.,. 4 years ago

      very nice,.,.,.

    • Rajan cgc 4 years ago

      Very good explnation..

    • ravali 4 years ago

      thanks

    • Rocky singh 4 years ago

      Easy to understand

    • Amit kumar sharma 4 years ago

      very eazy language for understanding to transmission media

    • Santosh Rai 4 years ago

      It is helpful..

    • muddasar 4 years ago

      its great

    • mani 4 years ago

      good hai

    • Raghu D S 4 years ago

      Nice data collection

    • sanjivani 4 years ago

      very nice information.I like this information. It is very easy to understand. and thanx so much

    • pritam mahire 4 years ago

      well & understandable

    • avinash 4 years ago

      good

    • Ashish 4 years ago

      It helps me to prepare my degree note..

    • prerana 4 years ago

      good

    • nssg 4 years ago

      thank u

    • Khushboo singh 4 years ago

      Thnx.. Vry simple language is used.Easy to understand.

    • pushpendra kanojiya 4 years ago

      very goooooooooooooooood this information is help on my project

    • chanchal kumari 4 years ago

      Thanks for the explanation of guided media.plz explain the type of unguided media.

    • jayesh 4 years ago

      nice def & easy language to understand

    • Caleb Oyondi 4 years ago

      Thanx,it has ril assisted me to cary out mah research wit easy

    • Lizyeresiyaka 4 years ago

      Good work keep it up

    • kelvin mukomberanwa 4 years ago

      nice notes .i had a good lecture with these notes

    • Raju 4 years ago

      it has cleared our doubts

    • rehab ismail 4 years ago

      relay nice work and you do hard work thank you

    • AKHILESH RANJAN 4 years ago

      good work and nice note

    • mayur chaudhary 4 years ago

      help full information

    • sulakshna dogra 4 years ago

      no information abt unbounded media...........

    • waqas mehmood 4 years ago

      good info , but you must provide wireless media related info also...

    • kashaaf mirza 4 years ago

      very helpful material about guided media.thnx

    • Sabhaya janak (777) 4 years ago

      Thanks for you..................

    • sheneique 4 years ago

      this is a very useful information that will help me with my information technology subject

    • Ahmad 4 years ago

      I lke this ..

    • Anu 4 years ago

      Nice and use full to all

    • Loco 4 years ago

      Excellent work

    • Maclean gondwe 4 years ago

      Thanx..it helped me but what about unbounded media??

    • rabiya rehan 4 years ago

      these notes proved very good help for me

    • bala 4 years ago

      super and very easy for understanding

    • dhillon 4 years ago

      very good notics

    • Nathasha 4 years ago

      No information at all !!!! what about the unbounded mediaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaahhhhhhhh!!!!!!!!! :O

    • Mithun Kaushal 4 years ago

      very nice explain UTP & STP

    • Isaiah John 4 years ago

      Needa know about the unbounded media dude

    • shruti 4 years ago

      good explanation... need to know about unguided media too...

    • Manju R G. 4 years ago

      Very good information

    • navi sarai 4 years ago

      but where is unguided media

    • Ghulam mustufa khan 4 years ago

      Good information about the t.media.....

    • sachin 4 years ago

      where is information about unbounded media????

      but dont worry...i send u.

      Unbounded / Unguided media or wireless media doesn't use any physical connectors between the two devices communicating. Usually the transmission is send through the atmosphere but sometime it can be just across the rule. Wireless media is used when a physical obstruction or distance blocks are used with normal cable media. The three types of wireless media are:

      * RADIO WAVES

      * MICRO WAVES

      * INFRARED WAVES

      1. RADIO WAVES:-

      It has frequency between 10 K Hz to 1 G Hz. Radio waves has the following types.

      * Short waves

      * VHF (Very High Frequency)

      * UHF (Ultra High Frequency)

      SHORT WAVES:-

      There are different types of antennas used for radio waves. Radio waves transmission can be divided into following categories.

      * LOW POWER, SINGLE FREQUENCY.

      * HIGH POWER, SINGLE FREQUENCY

      1. LOW POWER , SINGLE FREQUENCY:-

      As the name shows this system transmits from one frequency and has low power out. The normal operating ranges on these devices are 20 to 25 meter.

      CHARACTERISTICS LOW POWER , SINGLE FREQUENCY:-

      * Low cost

      * Simple installation with pre-configured

      * 1 M bps to 10 M bps capacity

      * High attenuation

      * Low immunity to EMI

      2. HIGH POWER, SINGLE FREQUENCY:-

      This is similar to low power single frequency. These devices can communicate over greater distances.

      CHARACTERISTICS HIGH POWER, SINGLE FREQUENCY:-

      * Moderate cost

      * Easier to install than low power single frequency

      * 1 Mbps to 10 Mbps of capacity

      * Low attenuation for long distances

      * Low immunity to EMI

      MICRO WAVES

      Micro waves travels at high frequency than radio waves and provide through put as a wireless network media. Micro wave transmission requires the sender to be inside of the receiver.

      Following are the types of Micro waves.

      1. · Terrestrial Micro waves

      2. · Satellite Micro waves

      1. Terrestrial Micro waves:-

      Terrestrial Micro waves are used are used to transmit wireless signals across a few miles. Terrestrial system requires that direct parabolic antennas can be pointed to each other. These systems operate in a low Giga Hertz range.

      CHARACTERISTICS of Terrestrial Micro waves:-

      * Moderate to high cost.

      * Moderately difficult installation

      * 1 M bps to 10 M bps capacity

      * Variable attenuation

      * Low immunity to EMI

      Satellite Micro waves

      The main problem with aero wave communication is the curvature of the earth, mountains & other structure often block the line of side. Due to this reason, many repeats are required for long distance which increases the cost of data transmission between the two points. This problem is recommended by using satellites.

      Satellite micro wave transmission is used to transmit signals through out the world. These system use satellites in orbit about 50,000 Km above the earth. Satellite dishes are used to send the signals to the satellite where it is again send back down to the receiver satellite. These transmissions also use directional parabolic antenna’ with in line of side.

      In satellite communication micro wave signals at 6 GHz is transmitted from a transmitter on the earth through the satellite position in space. By the time signal reaches the satellites becomes weaker due to 50,000 Km distance. The satellite amplifies week signals and transmits it back to the earth at the frequency less than 6 GHz.

      Characteristics Satellite Micro waves:

      * High cost

      * Extremely difficult and hare installation.

      * Variable attenuation.

      * Low immunity to EMI

      * High security needed because a signal send to satellite is broadcasts through all receivers with in satellite.

      Infrared

      Infrared frequencies are just below visible light. These high frequencies allow high sped data transmission. This technology is similar to the use of a remote control for a TV. Infrared transmission can be affected by objects obstructing sender or receiver. These transmissions fall into two categories.

      1. Point to point

      2. Broadcast

      (i) Point to Point: - Point to point infrared transmission signal directly between two systems. Many lap top system use point to pint transmission. These systems require direct alignment between many devices.

      Characteristics of Point to point:-

      * Wide range of cost

      * Moderately easy installation.

      * 100 k bps to 16 Mb of capacity.

      * Variable attenuation.

      * High immunity to EMI

      (i) Broad Cast: - These infrared transmission use sprayed signal, one broad cast in all directions instead of direct beam. This help to reduce the problems of proper alignment and abstraction. It also allows multiple receiver of signal

      Characteristics of Broad Cast:-

      * In expensive.

      * Single installation.

      * 1M bps capacity.

      * Variable attenuation.

    • hassan 4 years ago

      good maternal for student

    • tanush sharma 4 years ago

      good information

    • kiran yadav 4 years ago

      it is very simple language easily understand

    • michaelkemsens 4 years ago

      hello matt if your still knoking around here is the contact

      and some info , they have 20% discount now,just say I said you would sort him out

    • jivan 4 years ago

      i love this note its simple and easy to understand thanks u so much

    • Rahul 4 years ago

      very nice information

    • elias 4 years ago

      what is transmition media?

    • geviv 4 years ago

      what the heck! it's not complete bro!

    • jyean 4 years ago

      extra nice information

    • mohit 4 years ago

      gooodd

    • Zaheer Ahmad 4 years ago

      God bless you for your good working

    • wendy 4 years ago

      god work..

    • pratiksha 4 years ago

      pratiksha

      good notes for better knowledge

    • chandrasekhar 4 years ago

      this abstract is very useful&easy to understand.

    • hhh 4 years ago

      nice

    • Sunayan Saikia 4 years ago

      Very Goooood notessssss............

    • raheel 4 years ago

      thank you so much

    • Sunny 4 years ago

      Easy

    • VIBHUTI 4 years ago

      Good explain the transmission media.

    • aparna 4 years ago

      indeed....gud n easy to understand

    • deep 4 years ago

      nice info n easy to understand..............

    • mukesh kumar akela 4 years ago

      i am satisfied this chapter

    • milley 4 years ago

      nice content

    • krishnaveni 4 years ago

      you should be mentioned about wireless transmission media.

    • shabinaz 4 years ago

      GOOD n Easy explanation

    • RYAN 4 years ago

      great categorys

    • yash pratap singh 4 years ago

      nice i have got all info.

    • gg 4 years ago

      this is good information

    • abc 4 years ago

      nice one

      Keep giving such info ....

      Vry helpful for I.T projects!!!!

    • Harshanid 4 years ago

      Well short notes & Thank u!!!!

    • anshumalikbadmas@gmalik.com 4 years ago

      it is very nice

      And it will help me in my I.T. project

    • raj 4 years ago

      i love you all friends

    • jomar 4 years ago

      very good

    • Maher 4 years ago

      beautiful article.

    • Iswariya Surya 4 years ago

      Easy to learn and useful.

    • Anshul 4 years ago

      good language and i really thank full who has given this

    • JITHU 4 years ago

      itzzz good :)

      but itz very good if u give unbounded notes

    • divya 4 years ago

      this notes were very useful to me and it will be more helpful for my sem exam......i really want to thank who made this notes.......

    • dharshini 4 years ago

      i really want to thank the producer of the "hubpages" .......

    • Nazik shah 4 years ago

      Nice

    • khan tanzila 4 years ago

      It is wel & good but it is very short easy in understand

      ing

    • samra 4 years ago

      nice info given

    • rohith 4 years ago

      easy.....and simple..great wrk thnks...

    • jahckzoo 3 years ago

      very helpful, good work thanx..

    • ermias girma 3 years ago

      nice 10Q

    • karan 3 years ago

      Very important information thanx

    • Lushi Grey 3 years ago

      easy to understand.........and also very clear concept.thanks.

    • alooo 3 years ago

      I will keep on singing the same thing ; Please try and be sure if I can do . I have said that am ready to send blood cancer drugs blood cancer juice ; blood cancer bread ; blood cancer perfusion ; blood cancer feeding ; breast cancer drugs ; breast cancer perfusion ; breast cancer injection ; breast feeding ; breast cancer medicinal bread ; breast cancer juice and diabetes treatment with hypertension treatment without asking for any kindly do ; just to prove that am a searcher . The only help that you can do is to send certificate or tell me to write my capacity research and discovery ; if you cannot believe me .

      Thanks ; Please for all this time that I have not be answering any notes it is because I all ways travel to my country for more researcher actually I am free with some difficulties ; but for cancer and diabetes I have gone through with my research . What do I need for you is certificate I think ; if you are not sure of my research discovery cancer and diabetes drugs ; please do it in this way ; send me message about cancer or diabetes tell me to direct you how to cure cancer diabetes in my own capacity of research discovery .

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      Physician leaders ;Healthcare leaders are finding that physician integration will be critical for achieving the increased efficiencies and coordination necessary for meeting healthcare reform standards and for producing savings drugs for cancer and anybody microbes . Although integral to the formation of accountable care organizations, hospitals are pursuing physician integration regardless of plans to create an ACO because of the changing the laws and the medicinal strategies in healthcare. While these changes are just beginning, several chief medical officers and medical affairs executives share challenges and strategies to establ

    • shamin 3 years ago

      that is the great copy n paste my home work :D

    • vinita singh 3 years ago

      CITIZEN CARD SYSTEM

      INTRODUCTION TO PROJECT

      A Citizen Card (also called Identification or ID) is any proof which may be used to verify aspects of a person’s personal Identification. If issued in the form of a small, mostly standard-sized card, it is usually called an identity card (IC). In some countries the possession of a government-produced identity card is compulsory while in others it may be voluntary. In countries which do not have formal identity documents, informal ones may in some circumstances be required.

      Many organizations need to be sure of your age or identity. Using a Citizen Card is voluntary, but it can make life much easier. Even if you have a passport or driving license, Citizen Card means you can leave these more valuable documents safely at home. Using a Citizen Card means that you can access the products and services to which you are entitled.

      Most shops, pubs, clubs, airlines (domestic flights) and other organizations recognize Citizen Card as valid photo-ID or proof-of-age. As a scheme audited by the Trading Standards Institute Citizen Card was the first scheme to carry PASS (Proof of Age Standards Scheme) accreditation, supported by the Home Office.

      The Citizen Card System keeps details of citizens on our database so that if someone queries your card we can confirm that you are a legitimate cardholder. We also provide Experian, an information company, with access to Citizen Card data for the purpose of age validation, identity authentication and fraud prevention. If a website or other organization wishes to ascertain the identity or age of one of its users, Experian can corroborate the information supplied against details held on the Citizen Card database.

      The Model Citizen Card May be like this

      Information Present in this citizen card or in a supporting database might include the bearer’s full name, Photograph, age, Date of Birth, Address, and Citizen Card Number. The western countries like United Kingdom and the United States especially, government-issued compulsory identity cards or, more precisely, their centralized database are a source of debate as they are regarded as an infringement of privacy and civil liberties. Most criticism is directed towards the enhanced possibilities of extensive abuse of centralized and comprehensive databases storing sensitive data.

      PURPOSE OF THE PROJECT

      The Project ‘Citizen Card System’ gives us the information about the citizen in any country. A Citizen has unique Id to find out the personal information in each and every department or service wherever a citizen goes. This information can be found out by the unique Id of the citizen. If any citizen wants to utilize the services or utilities by the Government or Private organizations, he has to go to each and every department with different Id for that particular department. Instead, a citizen card helps in having all the utilities and services under one unique Id. This system not only helps us to know the information about the services or utilities but also it gives the information about the character of the citizen in credit rating.

      PROBLEM IN EXISTING SYSTEM

      The existing system is a manual or semi automated system, i.e. citizen information in the country can be stored in the form of Books or thin databases like Ms excel etc. The major problem of this information is data can be stored in various formats, sometimes it may be changed between states in the country.

      Another tedious problems is searching the information of a citizen, it is not an easy thing to find out of citizen information like India. Sharing data from one department to another department is not possible; it may cause lot of delay because data is not centralized.

      • It has been argued that identity cards impose a disproportionate burden upon both government and citizens while empowering the executive, which is contrary to the maxim: “the government that governs best governs least”.

      • In many cases, other forms of documentation such as a driver’s license, passport, or Issuing Credit card serve a similar function for that identify a citizen through manually system is a tedious process.

      • The cost of introducing and administering a Citizen Card System can be very high.

      • Age, address, personal details verification of a citizen is not that much of easier.

      • Observing that illegal immigration into the country was posing a serious threat to national security, a high-powered government committee has strongly recommended a unique identity card for citizens is compulsory.

      • The recommendation assumes significance amidst reports of a large number of Bangladeshi immigrants and terrorists sneaking into the country from across the borders.

      SOLUTION OF THESE PROBLEMS

      The Citizen Card is treated as Official ID and proof-of-age for anyone resident in Country. This Card is recommended by Trading Standards, the Police, and shops, pubs, local authorities, schools, MPs and many other organizations.

      By Citizen Card System we can solve major problems

      1) Stop Infiltration

      2) Easy Identification of Person

      3) Stop corruption

      4) Stop Tax Evasion

      5) Maintain the history of every person

      PROPOSED SYSTEM

      Advantages

      • Identity verification in banks or at national borders with a standard Citizen card would be simpler than with a physically bulky passport, especially if banks don’t accept residents having foreign passports.

      • Eligibility or ownership verification would be facilitated (for example, when paying with a credit card or cheque, or attempting to buy age-restricted products).

      • False identification may be reduced where identity cards are required to access a bank account. Of course, phishing and many other forms of identity theft will be unaffected.

      • Citizen Cards can be a useful administrative tool that can increase efficiency in dealings with both the government and private companies.

      • Cards may help reduce immigration service bureaucracy. In certain countries, the procedures for deporting illegal immigrants whose ages, identities or nationalities cannot be formally established are more complex than those for whom they can be readily asserted. This gives illegal immigrants more time to prepare their legal defence.

      • In many countries ID Cards are given only to citizens, these can be a source of pride since they are often the most tangible proof of citizenship.

      • Commercial organizations such as banks typically do not try to authenticate the identity of a person, but rather the validity of a transactions (e.g. by signature or PIN) due to the acknowledged difficulty in reliably identifying an individual in a fraud proof and convenient manner.

      • And the Citizen Card System database that exhaustively covers the whole population is perhaps the only way of ensuring a direct two-way interaction between the state and the citizen; as the unique Citizen ID is necessary for the state and its agencies to correctly identify the unique individual on the other end.

      • In other words, there will continue to be a passport database with the external affairs ministry, a PAN database with the finance ministry, a terrorist database with the home ministry, a BPL database with the state governments, the election commission’s voters database, and so on. Each of these databases will eventually have one more piece of information — the Citizen Id number.

    • it is clear presentation about transmission media 10Q for support help us 3 years ago

      It is very clear presentation about transmission media please keep it up on the Area 10Q for help us

    • janaka 3 years ago

      good good............i like.............

    • manooooooj 3 years ago

      supper maxxa habai chatr

    • Basharat Toori 3 years ago

      Its too much easy to understand Trasmission Media , but it will be more fabulous if Unbounded Media notes were also posted.

      thanks a lot......,,,.,.,.,

    • nik sharma 3 years ago

      gud, but not full information....

    • Tatiani 3 years ago

      great!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

    • janelle 3 years ago

      i learnt a lot from thanks a lot

    • Roshni De 3 years ago

      Thanks..............

    • Suman 3 years ago

      It is very nice. thanks!!!!!!

    • felling 3 years ago

      nice ............................

    • dhanaji 3 years ago

      to good

    • vani yadav 3 years ago

      very nice information.I like this information. It is very easy to understand. tooo good......

    • rekha 3 years ago

      saalo kutto kya h ye .... bakwas pel rakhi h... hattt chup kro sab..........

    • preeeeemm chopra 3 years ago

      uhh lala uhh lala................. melo ko malum tha te tu kuth dalbal klega....

    • mallika sherawat 3 years ago

      wah.... ye notes to mere kapdo ki trah bhut kam h...

    • mukut 3 years ago

      nice and hel ful.......very easy to understand

    • ARPIT 3 years ago

      Exellent theory

    • Omeshowri 3 years ago

      Its very nice information.

    • bokhutlo.busta 3 years ago

      thanks papi.......

    • naushad jan chitrali 3 years ago

      very nice job by the contributers........

    • mamunur Rashid 3 years ago

      very good ..and getting knowledge...........

    • Manjula 3 years ago

      Easy to understand

    • trishana 3 years ago

      i love it!! nice job!!!!

    • Muhammad Ali 3 years ago

      good work in getting knowledge.

    • pooja sanas 3 years ago

      Its fab..... easy to understand thanks.......

    • SURENDRA 3 years ago

      Very nice information.I like this information. It is very easy to understand. too good......

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    • harkirat 3 years ago

      hahahah

    • nitesh 3 years ago

      good verry verry good and nice meaning full write

    • sedilame kasefitlhela 2 years ago

      it is very easy to understand. Thank you...

    • Golu chauhan 2 years ago

      Best Answer..........!!!!

    • Golu chauhan 2 years ago

      good verry verry good and nice meaning full write

    • michaelkemsens 2 years ago

      21 months ago

      hello matt if your still knoking around here is the contact

      and some info , they have 20% discount now,just say I said you would sort him out

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    • ammy Aman from kurali....... 2 years ago

      where is about unbounded?......??????????????

    • Ankit 2 years ago

      Very, very, very, very, very, very, very nice!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

    • Lawrence 2 years ago

      very simple and educative i ve really learnt from it

    • Oghene Charles 2 years ago

      Good work but you guys did not simply everything.

    • kishwor duwadi 2 years ago

      thank you for the every thing u gave the discription ..... it gave a lot of help

    • jacob 2 years ago

      it is very easy to understand. Thank you...it is very easy to understand. Thank you...it is very easy to understand. Thank you.

    • Sharmila 2 years ago

      It is very useful and easy to understand thanks you so much for helpful at the time

    • keena 2 years ago

      useless and does not help at all!!

    • nikhitha 2 years ago

      Really it helped me a lot. Thanks

    • Ibtu 23 months ago

      This is awesome

    • mark 19 months ago

      nice

    • cinna 18 months ago

      it was good in terms of understanding but u seriously need to work on ur english

    • Rushikesh Mane 16 months ago

      Bro, this is so small information can u plz give us a full information....?

    • Rush....! 16 months ago

      Bro, this is so small information can u plz give us a full information....?

    • killer982839429994392293939920993939 10 months ago

      thnx

    • piyush singh 7 months ago

      It is good but give full information

    • bbvines 6 months ago

      thank u

    • Levis Andrew sui 5 months ago

      Thanks finding very useful,,, but information about Unbounded is not being added

    • m dodo 5 months ago

      thanks

    • Pradeep 5 months ago

      A good tute.. butr doesn't have unguided media as it mentioned in the topic

    • Singh Sneha 5 months ago

      Nice answer! It is very easy to understand transmission media in networking..

    • this site is kacara 5 months ago

      uhhhoihjnkl;huijkl;hjkjkjklkl

    • s samridha 4 months ago

      good explanation

    • Saniya memon 3 months ago

      Very nice explanation..

    • ankita 3 months ago

      Simple n grt notes

    • saruni 3 months ago

      cheers..simle and clear

    • blob:54B52A6A-3840-4DFE-A74F-9759EFDA8A16 2 months ago

      nice

    • elizabeth 6 weeks ago

      wawoo grt notes. thnx

    • baalagajakreedan 6 weeks ago

      Nice notes

    • Bedahn Niwampa 6 weeks ago

      its so nyc and it makes one understand much better,thx alot

    • Razin Hanza 4 weeks ago

      Very Easy to understand

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